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Table of Contents                
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
   ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021
Commission file number 000-32191
T. ROWE PRICE GROUP, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Maryland 52-2264646
State of incorporation IRS Employer Identification No. 
100 East Pratt Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21202
Address, including zip code, of principal executive offices
(410345-2000
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Common stock, $.20 par value per shareTROWThe NASDAQ Stock Market LLC
(Title of class)(Ticker symbol)(Name of exchange on which registered)
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months, and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulations S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period the registrant was required to submit such files).      Yes      No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer 
Non-accelerated filer (do not check if smaller reporting company)
Smaller reporting company 
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).      Yes      No
The aggregate market value of the common equity (all voting) held by non-affiliates (excludes executive officers and directors) computed using $197.97 per share (the NASDAQ Official Closing Price on June 30, 2021, the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter) was $44.6 billion.
The number of shares outstanding of the registrant's common stock as of the latest practicable date, February 22, 2022, is 228,093,290.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE: Certain portions of the registrant's Definitive Proxy Statement for the 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, to be filed pursuant to Regulation 14A of the general rules and regulations under the Act, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.
Exhibit index begins on page 92.


Table of Contents                
  
 PAGE
ITEM 1.
Business
ITEM 1A.
ITEM 1B.
ITEM 2.
ITEM 3.
ITEM 4.
Information about our Executive Officers
ITEM 5.
ITEM 6.Reserved
ITEM 7.
ITEM 7A.
ITEM 8.
ITEM 9.
ITEM 9A.
Controls and Procedures
ITEM 9B.
Other Information
ITEM 9C.Disclosure Regarding Foreign Jurisdictions that Prevent Inspections
ITEM 10.
ITEM 11.
ITEM 12.
ITEM 13.
ITEM 14.
ITEM 15.
ITEM 16.Form 10-K Summary

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PART I

Item 1.Business.

T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. is a financial services holding company that provides global investment management services through its subsidiaries to investors worldwide. We provide an array of U.S. mutual funds, subadvised funds, separately managed accounts, collective investment trusts, and other T. Rowe Price products. The other
T. Rowe Price products include: open-ended investment products offered to investors outside the U.S. and products offered through variable annuity life insurance plans in the U.S. We also provide certain investment advisory clients with related administrative services, including distribution, mutual fund transfer agent, accounting, and shareholder services; participant recordkeeping and transfer agent services for defined contribution retirement plans; brokerage; trust services; and non-discretionary advisory services through model delivery. We are focused on delivering global investment management excellence to help clients around the world achieve their long-term investment goals.

The late Thomas Rowe Price, Jr., founded our firm in 1937, and the common stock of T. Rowe Price Associates, Inc. was first offered to the public in 1986. The T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. corporate holding company structure was established in 2000.

On December 29, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Oak Hill Advisors, L.P., a leading alternative credit manager, and other entities that had common ownership (collectively, "OHA"). We acquired 100% of the equity interests of Oak Hill Advisors, L.P., 100% of the equity interests in entities that make co-investments in certain affiliated private investment funds (the "co-investment entities") and a majority of the equity interests in entities that have interests in general partners of affiliated private investment funds and are entitled to a disproportionate allocation of income (the "carried interest entities") for upfront purchase consideration of $3.4 billion in a combination of cash and T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. common stock. The upfront purchase consideration included the retirement of $217.1 million of OHA debt. In addition, the consideration may be increased by up to an incremental $900.0 million in cash as part of an earnout payment starting in early 2025 and ending in early 2027, upon satisfying or exceeding certain defined revenue targets. These defined revenue targets are evaluated on a cumulative basis beginning at the end of 2024, with the ability to extend two additional years if the defined revenue targets are not achieved. The earnout amount will be subject to a proportional reduction if OHA's actual revenue at the end of the earnout period does not meet the defined revenue targets and could result in no earnout payout if OHA's actual revenue falls below 75% of the defined revenue targets.

The acquisition of OHA included $57 billion of capital under management, of which $47 billion of fee-basis assets under management was added to our assets under management as of the date of the acquisition. The acquisition accelerates our expansion into alternative investment markets and complements our existing global platform and ongoing strategic initiatives in our core investments and distribution capabilities. Alternative credit strategies continue to be in demand from institutional and retail investors across the globe seeking attractive yields and risk-adjusted returns.

Over its more than 30-year history, OHA has generated attractive risk-adjusted returns across numerous market cycles. Its fully integrated team specializes in private, distressed, special situations, liquid, and structured credit and real asset strategies in North America, Europe and other geographies. OHA manages private investment funds, collateralized loan obligations ("CLOs") and other private accounts on behalf of a global, largely institutional client base. OHA has over 300 employees with headquarters in New York and primary offices in London, Sydney, Hong Kong, Luxembourg, Fort Worth, and San Francisco.

Core Capabilities

Our core capabilities have enabled us to deliver excellent operating results since our initial public offering. We maintain a strong corporate culture that is focused on delivering strong long-term investment performance and world-class service to our clients. We distribute our broad array of active investment strategies through a diverse set of distribution channels and vehicles to meet the needs of our clients globally. Our ongoing financial strength and discipline has allowed us to take advantage of attractive growth opportunities and invest in key capabilities. Our strategic investments have been focused on increasing our investment professional headcount globally, expanding our product offerings, expanding our global distribution footprint to strengthen our regional relationships and brand, and investing in new technology and the core infrastructure of the firm.

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The industry in which we operate has been evolving quickly and a number of headwinds have arisen over the last few years, including passive investments taking market share from traditional active strategies; continued downward fee pressure; demand for new investment vehicles to meet client needs; capacity challenges with some of our mutual funds and portfolios and an ever-changing regulatory landscape.

Despite the headwinds, we believe there are significant opportunities that align to our core capabilities. As such, we have been responding with several multi-year initiatives that are designed to strengthen our long-term competitive position and to:

Maintain our position as a premier active asset manager, delivering durable value to clients.
Build T. Rowe Price into a more globally diversified asset manager.
Extend and leverage our retirement expertise globally while becoming an ever more integrated investment solutions provider.
Embed best practices for sustainability and environmental, social and corporate governance throughout the company.
Expand our investment capabilities and product offerings, including through our acquisition of OHA.
Maintain strong processes and internal controls, which is increasingly important with growing business complexity and regulation.
Remain a destination of choice for top talent, with a culture of diversity, inclusivity, empowerment, accountability and collaboration.
Deliver strong financial results and balance sheet strength for our stockholders over the long term.

Financial Overview / Assets Under Management

During 2021, we derived the vast majority of our consolidated net revenues and net income from investment advisory services provided by our subsidiaries, primarily T. Rowe Price Associates and T. Rowe Price International Ltd. Beginning in 2022, investment advisory services provided to OHA-affiliated investment products and vehicles will be included in consolidated net revenues and net income. Previously, in November 2020, we announced our plan to establish T. Rowe Price Investment Management, a separate SEC-registered investment advisor, to support our continued focus on generating strong investment results for clients. T. Rowe Price Investment Management is anticipated to begin operations in March 2022. Subsequent to this date, services related to this investment advisor will be included in our consolidated net revenue and net income.

Our revenues depend largely on the total value and composition of our assets under management. Accordingly, fluctuations in financial markets and in the composition of assets under management impact our revenues and results of operations.

At December 31, 2021, we had $1,687.8 billion in assets under management, including $871.4 billion in U.S. mutual funds, $437.1 billion in subadvised funds and separately managed accounts (including $10.9 billion of OHA separate accounts), $343.3 billion in collective investment trusts and other T. Rowe Price products, and $36.0 billion in private investment funds and CLOs. The acquisition of OHA completed on December 29, 2021 included $57 billion of capital under management (which includes net assets value, portfolio value and/or unfunded capital), of which $46.9 billion of fee-basis assets under management are included in our assets under management as of December 31, 2021.

Assets under management increased $217.3 billion from the end of 2020. This increase was primarily driven by market appreciation and income, net of distributions not reinvested, of $198.9 billion and fee-basis assets under management of $46.9 billion that was acquired in the OHA acquisition. These increases were partially offset by net cash outflows of $28.5 billion for 2021.


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The following tables show our assets under management by vehicle, asset class, distribution channel, and account type:
(in billions)20212020
Assets under management by vehicle
U.S. mutual funds$871.4 $794.6 
Subadvised and separately managed accounts437.1 400.1 
T. Rowe Price collective investment trusts and other sponsored investment products:
  Collective investment trusts258.3 199.6 
  Stable value, variable annuity products, and exchange-traded funds29.1 28.0 
  SICAVs and other sponsored funds regulated outside the U.S.55.9 48.2 
Total T. Rowe Price collective investment trusts and other sponsored investment products343.3 275.8 
Affiliated private investment funds and CLOs36.0 — 
Total assets under management$1,687.8 $1,470.5 
Assets under management by asset class
Equity$992.7 $895.8 
Fixed income, including money market175.7 168.7 
Multi-Asset(1)
477.7 406.0 
Alternatives(2)
41.7 — 
Total assets under management$1,687.8 $1,470.5 
Assets under management by distribution channel
Global financial intermediaries(3)
$876.5 $765.4 
Global institutions(3)(4)
403.8 335.9 
Individual U.S. investors on a direct basis244.8 221.7 
U.S. retirement plan sponsors - full service recordkeeping162.7 147.5 
Total assets under management$1,687.8 $1,470.5 
Assets under management by account type(5)
Defined contribution retirement assets:
Defined contribution - investment only$557.1 $484.6 
Defined contribution - full-service recordkeeping 162.6 147.5 
Total defined contribution retirement assets719.7 632.1 
Deferred annuity and direct retail retirement assets382.4 305.0 
Total defined contribution, deferred annuity, and direct retail retirement assets1,102.1 937.1 
Other585.7 533.4 
Total assets under management$1,687.8 $1,470.5 
(1)The underlying assets under management of the multi-asset portfolios have been aggregated and presented in this category and not reported in the equity and fixed income rows.
(2)The alternatives asset class includes strategies authorized to invest more than 50% of its holdings in private credit, leveraged loans,     mezzanine, real assets/CRE, structured products, stressed / distressed, non-investment grade CLOs, special situations, or have absolute return as its investment objective. Generally, only those strategies with longer than daily liquidity are included.
(3) Includes Americas, Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA"), and Asia Pacific ("APAC").
(4) Includes T. Rowe Price investments in proprietary products, assets of the T. Rowe Price employee benefit plans, Private Asset Management accounts, and other as well as OHA products.
(5)The 2020 amounts have been reclassified to conform with the 2021 presentation.

In 2021, our target date retirement products experienced net cash inflows of $11.3 billion. The assets under management in our target date retirement products totaled $391.1 billion at December 31, 2021, or 23.2% of our managed assets at December 31, 2021, compared with 22.6% at the end of 2020.

Additional information concerning our assets under management, results of operations, and financial condition during the past three years is contained in the Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations in Part II, Item 7, as well as our consolidated financial statements, which are included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

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INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT SERVICES.

Distribution Channels and Products

We distribute our products across three broad geographical regions: Americas; Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA"); and Asia Pacific ("APAC"). We service clients in 50 countries around the world. Investors domiciled outside the U.S., including OHA's clients, represented about 10% of total assets under management at the end of 2021.

We accumulate our assets under management from a diversified client base across five primary distribution channels: Americas financial intermediaries, EMEA & APAC financial intermediaries, individual U.S. investors on a direct basis, U.S. retirement plan sponsors for which we provide recordkeeping services, and global institutional investors. The following table outlines the types of products within each distribution channel through which our assets under management are sourced as of December 31, 2021.

Americas financial intermediariesEMEA & APAC financial intermediariesIndividual U.S. investors on a direct basisU.S. retirement plan sponsors - full service recordkeepingGlobal institutions
U.S. Mutual Funds
SICAVs(2) / FCPs(3)
U.S. Mutual FundsU.S. Mutual FundsU.S. Mutual Funds
Collective Investment TrustsAustralian Unit Trusts ("AUTs")Separate AccountsCollective Investment TrustsCollective Investment Trusts
Subadvised Accounts
OEICs(4)
College Savings PlansSeparate Accounts
SICAVs(2) / FCPs(3)
Managed Accounts / Model DeliverySubadvised Accounts
Model Portfolios(6)
Separate / Subadvised Accounts
Model Portfolios(1)
Japanese ITMs(5)
Active Exchange-Traded FundsCanadian Pooled Funds
College Savings PlansManaged Accounts / Model Delivery
Japanese ITMs(5)
Canadian Pooled FundsPrivate Funds
Active Exchange-Traded Funds
(1) Mutual fund models delivered to a third-party program sponsor,. (2)Société d'Investissement à Capital Variable (Luxembourg), (3)Fonds Commun de Placement (Luxembourg), (4)Open-Ended Investment Company (U.K.), (5)Japanese Investment Trust Management Funds, (6)Provided through our ActivePlus and Retirement Advisory Service Portfolios.

Investment Capabilities

We manage a broad range of investment strategies in equity, fixed income, multi-asset, and alternatives across sectors, styles and regions. Our strategies are designed to meet the varied and changing needs and objectives of investors and are delivered across a range of vehicles. The alternatives asset class includes strategies authorized to invest more than 50% of its holdings in private credit, leveraged loans, mezzanine, real assets, structured products, stressed / distressed, non-investment grade CLOs, special situations, or have absolute returns as its investment objective. Generally, only those strategies with longer than daily liquidity are included. We also offer specialized advisory services, including management of stable value investment contracts, modeled multi-asset solutions, and a distribution management service for the disposition of equity securities our clients receive from third-party venture capital investment pools.

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The following tables set forth our broad investment capabilities as of December 31, 2021.

Equity
GrowthCoreValueConcentratedQuantitativeSustainable
U.S.:All-Cap, Large-Cap, Mid-Cap, Small-Cap, SectorsLarge-Cap, Mid-Cap, Small-CapLarge-Cap, Mid-Cap, Small-CapLarge-Cap (Growth & Value)Large-Cap (Value), Multi-Cap, Small-CapLarge-Cap (Growth & Value)
Global / International:All-Cap, Large-Cap, Small-Cap, Sectors, RegionalLarge-CapLarge-Cap, RegionalLarge-CapLarge-Cap (Growth & Value)All-Cap, Large-Cap

Fixed Income
CashLow DurationHigh Yield / Bank LoansGovernmentSecuritizedInvestment Grade Credit
U.S.:Taxable Money, Tax-Exempt MoneyStable Value, Short-Term Bond, Short Duration Income, Ultra-Short Term BondCredit Opportunities, Floating Rate, US High YieldUS Inflation Protection, US TreasurySecuritized Credit, CLO, GNMAUS Investment Grade
Global / International:N/RN/REuro High Yield, High Income, Global High YieldGlobal Government Bond, Global Government Bond ex-Japan, Global Government Bond High QualityN/RGlobal Investment Grade Corporate, Euro Investment Grade Corporate, Global Impact Credit
N/R - Not relevant

Fixed Income, cont'd
Multi-SectorDynamic SuiteEmerging MarketsMunicipal
U.S.:QM US Bond, US Core Bond, US Core Plus, US Investment Grade Core, US Total ReturnN/RN/RTax-Free High Yield, Intermediate Tax-Free High Yield, Muni Intermediate, Tax-Free Long-Term, Tax-Free Short/Intermediate
Global / International:Global Multi-Sector, Global Aggregate, International Bond, Euro AggregateDynamic Credit, Dynamic Global Bond, Dynamic Global Bond Investment Grade, Dynamic Emerging Markets BondEM Bond, EM Corporate, EM Corporate High Yield, EM Corporate Investment Grade, EM Local Bond, Asia CreditN/R
N/R - Not relevant

Multi-Asset
U.S. / Global / International:Target Date, Custom Target DateTarget AllocationGlobal AllocationGlobal IncomeManaged Volatility
Custom SolutionsReal AssetsRetirement Income

Alternatives
U.S. / Global / International:Private CreditLeveraged LoansMezzanineReal Assets / CREStructured Products
Stressed / DistressedCLOs - non-investment gradeSpecial Situations

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We employ fundamental and quantitative security analysis in the performance of the investment advisory function through substantial internal equity and fixed income investment research capabilities. We perform original industry and company research using such sources as inspection of corporate activities, management interviews, company-published financials and other information, and field checks with suppliers and competitors in the same industry and particular business sector. Our dedicated, in-house research analysts consider tangible investment factors, such as financial information, valuation, and macroeconomics in tandem with intangible environmental, social, and corporate governance investment factors.

Our research staff operates primarily from offices located in the U.S. and U.K. with additional staff based in Australia, China, Hong Kong, Japan, Singapore, and Switzerland. We also use research provided by brokerage firms and security analysts in a supportive capacity and information received from private economists, political observers, commentators, government experts, and market analysts. Our securities selection process for some investment portfolios is based on quantitative analysis using computerized data modeling.

From time to time, we introduce new strategies, investment vehicles, and other products to complement and expand our investment offerings, respond to competitive developments in the financial marketplace, and meet the changing needs of our investment advisory clients. We will introduce a new investment strategy if we believe that we have the appropriate investment management expertise and that its objective will be useful to investors over a long period. In 2021, we introduced five new strategies and several new share classes of existing strategies.

We typically provide seed capital for new investment products to enable the portfolio manager to begin building an investment performance history in advance of the portfolio receiving sustainable client assets. The length of time we hold our seed capital investment will vary for each new investment product as it is highly dependent on how long it takes to generate cash flows into the product from unrelated investors. We attempt to ensure that the new investment product has a sustainable level of assets from unrelated shareholders before we consider redemption of our seed capital investment in order to not negatively impact the new investment product's net asset value or its investment performance record. At December 31, 2021, we had seed capital investments in our products of $1.3 billion.

We may also close or limit new investments to new investors across T. Rowe Price investment products in order to maintain the integrity of the investment strategy and to protect the interests of its existing shareholders and investors. At present, the following strategies, which represent about 10% of total assets under management at December 31, 2021, are generally closed to new investors:
Strategy Year closed
High Yield Bond2012
U.S. Small-Cap Growth2013
U.S. Small-Cap Core2013
Capital Appreciation2014
Emerging Markets Growth2018
International Small-Cap Growth2018

Investment Advisory Fees

We provide investment advisory services through our subsidiaries to the U.S. mutual funds; clients on a subadvised or separately managed account basis; collective investment trusts; and other T. Rowe Price products, including funds offered to investors outside the U.S. and portfolios offered through variable annuity life insurance plans in the U.S.

Nearly 62% of our investment advisory fees are earned from our U.S. mutual funds, while about 38% of our investment advisory fees are earned from our other investment portfolios. Ten of our 185 U.S. mutual funds - Blue Chip Growth, Capital Appreciation, Growth Stock, New Horizons, Mid-Cap Growth, Large-Cap Growth, Health Sciences, International Discovery, Retirement 2030, and Dividend Growth - accounted for approximately 29% of our investment advisory revenues in 2021, and approximately 22% of our assets under management at December 31, 2021. Our largest client account relationship, apart from the U.S. mutual funds, is with a third-party financial intermediary that accounted for about 7% of our investment advisory revenues in 2021.

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U.S. Mutual Funds

At December 31, 2021, assets under our management in the U.S. mutual funds aggregated $871.4 billion, an increase of 9.7% or $76.8 billion from the beginning of the year. Investment advisory services are provided to each U.S. mutual fund under individual investment management agreements that grant the fund the right to use the
T. Rowe Price name. The Boards of the respective funds, including a majority of directors who are not interested persons of the funds or of T. Rowe Price Group (as defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940), must approve the investment management agreements annually. Fund shareholders approve material changes to these investment management agreements. Each agreement automatically terminates in the event of its assignment (as defined in the Investment Company Act) and, generally, either party may terminate the agreement without penalty after a 60-day notice. The termination of one or more of these agreements could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Independent directors and trustees of the U.S. mutual funds regularly review our fee structures.

The advisory fee paid monthly by each of the U.S. mutual funds is computed on a daily basis by multiplying a fund’s net assets by its effective fee rate. For the majority of the U.S. mutual funds, the fee rate is equal to the sum of a tiered group fee rate plus an individual fund rate. The tiered group rate is based on the combined net assets of nearly all of the U.S. mutual funds. If the combined net assets of these U.S. mutual funds exceed $845 billion, the weighted-average fee across pricing tiers is 28.1 basis points for the first $845 billion of net assets plus 26.0 basis points for net assets in excess of $845 billion. To the extent that the combined net assets of the funds included in the group rate calculation increase, the group charge component of a fund's advisory fee rate and the resulting advisory fee rate paid by each fund will decrease.

The individual fund rates are generally flat rates that are set based on the fund’s specific investment objective. Several funds have tiered individual fund rates that reduce their individual flat fee based on certain asset levels of the fund as described in their prospectus. The effective fee rates for each of the stock, bond, and multi-asset funds on which we earned annual advisory fees of $10 million or greater in 2021, varied from a low of 31 basis points for the Short-Term Bond Fund to a high of 104 basis points for the International Discovery Fund.

The fee rate of several of the U.S. mutual funds, including the Target-Date, Index funds, and Spectrum funds as well as specific funds offered solely to institutional investors, does not include a group fee component but rather an individual fund fee or an all-inclusive fee. An all-inclusive fee covers both the investment management fee and ordinary operating expenses incurred by the fund and, as a result, our management fee varies with the level of operating expenses a fund incurs.

Each U.S. mutual fund typically bears all expenses associated with its operation and the issuance and redemption of its securities. In particular, each fund pays investment advisory fees; shareholder servicing fees and expenses; fund accounting fees and expenses; transfer and sub-transfer agent fees; custodian fees and expenses; legal and auditing fees; expenses of preparing, printing and mailing prospectuses and shareholder reports to existing shareholders; registration fees and expenses; proxy and annual meeting expenses; and independent trustee or director fees and expenses.

We usually provide that a newly organized fund’s expenses will not exceed a specified percentage of its net assets during an initial operating period. Generally, during the earlier portion of the period, we will waive advisory fees and absorb other fund expenses, such as those described above, in excess of these self-imposed limits. During the latter portion of the period, we may recover some or all of the waived fees and absorbed costs, but such recovery is not assured.

Additionally, we have contractual management fee waivers for certain U.S mutual funds, including nearly all money market funds, which could occur under certain specified circumstances. Unlike traditional expense limits for newly organized funds, these waivers will not be recovered by T. Rowe Price in the future. In addition to these contractual fee waivers, due to the low interest rate environment in 2021, we voluntarily waived $57.9 million, or less than 1%, of our investment advisory fees from certain of our money market mutual funds, trusts, and other investment portfolios in order to maintain a positive yield for investors. The firm expects to continue to waive fees through at least the first half of 2022.
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Subadvised funds, separate accounts, collective investment trusts, and other investment products

Our subadvised, separate accounts, collective investment trusts, and other investment products had assets under management of $780.4 billion at December 31, 2021, an increase of $104.5 billion from the beginning of the year. This includes $10.9 billion of fee-basis assets under management attributable to separate accounts that were acquired as part of the OHA acquisition. Other investment products include open-ended investment products offered to investors outside the U.S. and products offered through variable annuity life insurance plans in the U.S. We earn investment management fees from these clients based on, among other things, the specific investment services to be provided, and these investment management fees are computed using the value of assets under management at a contracted annual fee rate or the products' effective fee rate for those with a tiered-fee rate structure.

The value of assets under management billed is generally based on daily valuations, end of billing period valuations, or month-end average valuations. In 2021, approximately 79% of our advisory fees were recognized based on daily portfolio valuations, 15% were based on end of billing period valuations, and 6% were based on month-end averages.

Our standard subadvised client accounts normally pay a daily tiered rate and their agreement typically provides for termination with 60 days notice. For separately managed accounts, the fee is generally based on a period ending value and their agreements provide for termination at any time. Unearned fees paid in advance are refunded upon termination. We currently also earn performance-based investment advisory fees on certain separately managed accounts. These fees are currently immaterial to our total investment advisory fees and are only recognized when the performance condition has been met. This recognition criteria can lead to uneven recognition of performance-based revenue throughout the year.

Our U.S. collective investment trusts, sponsored by T. Rowe Price Trust Company and subscribed to by certain qualified U.S. retirement plans, normally pay an all-inclusive tiered rate investment management fee computed on a daily basis.

Our standard form of investment advisory agreement with other T. Rowe Price products that pay management fees on a daily basis normally provides for termination with 30 days' notice. The following table details the services provided by certain of our subsidiaries based on our non-U.S. global investment products:
T. Rowe Price SubsidiaryProductsServices Provided
T. Rowe Price (Luxembourg) Management SàrlSICAVs / FCPsManagement company
T. Rowe Price AustraliaAUTsInvestment management
T. Rowe Price UKOEICsAuthorized corporate director
T. Rowe Price (Canada)Canadian Pooled FundsInvestment management
T. Rowe Price JapanJapanese ITMsInvestment management

Our subsidiaries T. Rowe Price Associates, T. Rowe Price International, T. Rowe Price Hong Kong, T. Rowe Price Singapore, T. Rowe Price Australia and T. Rowe Price Japan, may also provide subadvised investment management services to those global investment products listed in the table above.

We distribute the products listed in the table above outside the U.S. through distribution agents and other financial intermediaries. The fees we earn for distributing and marketing these products are part of our overall investment management fees for managing the product assets. We currently recognize any related distribution fees paid to these financial intermediaries in distribution and servicing costs.

ADMINISTRATIVE, DISTRIBUTION, AND SERVICING FEES.

Administrative Services

We also provide certain administrative services as ancillary services to our investment advisory clients. These administrative services are provided by several of our subsidiaries and include mutual fund transfer agent, accounting, distribution, and shareholder services; participant recordkeeping and transfer agent services for defined contribution retirement plans investing in U.S. mutual funds; recordkeeping services for defined contribution
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retirement plans investing in mutual funds outside the T. Rowe Price complex; brokerage; trust services; and non-discretionary advisory services.

T. Rowe Price Services provides the U.S. mutual funds transfer agency and shareholder services, including the staff, facilities, technology, and other equipment to respond to inquiries from fund shareholders. The U.S. mutual funds contract directly with BNY Mellon to provide mutual fund accounting services, including maintenance of financial records, preparation of financial statements and reports, daily valuation of portfolio securities, and computation of each mutual fund's daily net asset value per share.

T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services provides participant accounting and plan administration for defined contribution retirement plans that invest in the U.S. mutual funds, the T. Rowe Price collective investment trusts, and funds outside the T. Rowe Price complex. On August 1, 2021, T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services expanded its relationship with FIS, a global technology leader, in which FIS assumed responsibility for managing retirement technology development and core operations for our full-service recordkeeping offering. T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services also provides transfer agent services to the U.S. mutual funds. The pricing on these transfer agent services is based on basis points of the related assets under management. Plan sponsors and participants compensate us for some of the administrative services while the U.S. mutual funds and outside fund families compensate us for maintaining and administering the individual participant accounts for those plans that invest in the respective funds. As of December 31, 2021, we provided recordkeeping services for $270 billion in assets under administration, of which nearly $163 billion are assets we manage.

T. Rowe Price Trust Company also provides administrative trustee services. Through this entity, which is a Maryland-chartered limited service trust company, we serve as trustee for employer sponsored retirement plans and other retirement products. T. Rowe Price Trust Company may not accept deposits and cannot make personal or commercial loans. Our trust vehicles are not mutual funds. As such, trust requirements can result in lower compliance and administrative costs over other vehicles with a similar investment strategy. Our trust vehicles include investments in equity, fixed income and multi-asset assets.

We also provide discretionary and non-discretionary advisory planning services to individual investors through our subsidiary T. Rowe Price Advisory Services, Inc. These services are limited in scope, and advice recommendations consist solely of mutual funds advised by T. Rowe Price Associates or its affiliates that have been selected for inclusion in these services. These services include, but are not limited to, point-in-time financial planning, asset allocation advice, and discretionary advice through a solely digital experience.

Certain T. Rowe Price subsidiaries also provide non-discretionary advisory services to model delivered managed accounts. For these model delivered managed accounts, we provide the holdings and trades of the portfolio to the sponsor platforms to implement for their clients. The assets under advisement in these portfolios, predominantly in the United States, was $8 billion at December 31, 2021. The revenue earned on these services is recorded in administrative fees.

Distribution and Servicing

Our subsidiary, T. Rowe Price Investment Services ("TRPIS"), is the principal distributor of the U.S. mutual funds and contracts with third-party financial intermediaries who distribute these share classes. TRPIS enters into agreements with each intermediary under which each fund is responsible to pay the distribution and service fees directly to the applicable intermediaries. The Investor Class of all U.S. mutual funds can be purchased in the U.S. on a no-load basis, without a sales commission or 12b-1 fee. No-load mutual fund shares offer investors a low-cost and relatively easy method of directly investing in a variety of equity, fixed income, and multi-asset strategies. The I Class of certain U.S. mutual funds is designed to meet the needs of institutionally oriented clients who seek investment products with lower shareholder servicing costs and lower expense ratios. This share class limits ordinary operating expenses (other than interest; expenses related to borrowings, taxes, and brokerage; and any non-extraordinary expenses) to 5 basis points for a period of time and there are no external 12b-1 or administrative fee payments.

Certain of the U.S. mutual funds also offer Advisor Class and R Class shares that are distributed to investors and defined contribution retirement plans, respectively. These share classes pay 12b-1 fees of 25 and 50 basis points, respectively, for distribution, administration, and personal services. In addition, those U.S. mutual funds offered to investors through variable annuity life insurance plans have a share class that pays a 12b-1 fee of 25 basis points.

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We believe that our lower fund cost structure, distribution methods, and fund shareholder and administrative services help promote the stability of our fund assets under management through market cycles.

Advertising and promotion expenses associated with the distribution of our investment products are recognized when incurred and include advertising and direct mail communications to potential shareholders, as well as substantial staff and communications capabilities to respond to investor inquiries. Marketing and promotional efforts are focused in print media, television, and digital and social media. Advertising and promotion expenditures vary over time based on investor interest, market conditions, new and existing investment offerings, and the development and expansion of new marketing initiatives, including the enhancement of our digital capabilities.

ACQUISITION OF OHA.

Beginning in 2022:

T. Rowe Price will recognize investment advisory fees related to certain OHA products. OHA provides investment advisory services to private investment funds, CLOs and other private accounts in exchange for an investment advisory fee. Investment advisory fees from private investment funds are determined either monthly or quarterly, and are generally based on the private investment fund’s net asset value or invested capital. Investment advisory fees earned from CLOs include senior collateral management fees and subordinated collateral management fees, which are generally determined quarterly based on the sum of collateral principal amounts and the aggregate principal amount of all defaulted obligations. If amounts distributable on any payment date are insufficient to pay the collateral management fee according to the priority of payments, any shortfall is deferred and payable on subsequent payment dates. Investment advisory fees from private accounts are determined either monthly or quarterly and are generally based upon the net asset value of the account.

T. Rowe Price will recognize performance-based fees related to OHA products. In connection with the management contracts from certain private accounts, OHA is entitled to receive performance-based incentive fees when investment returns exceed a certain performance hurdle. In such arrangements, incentive fees are recognized when the performance benchmark has been achieved, which is generally measured on an annual basis. Incentive fees are considered a form of variable consideration, and as such, these fees are subject to potential reversal up until the end of the measurement period (which is generally one year) when the performance-based incentive fees become fixed, determinable, and are not subject to significant reversal. Incentive fees are generally paid within 90 days of the end of the private account’s measurement period.

T. Rowe Price will recognize income earned from interests in general partners of certain affiliated private investment funds that are entitled to a disproportionate allocation of income, which is also referred to as carried interest. We will record our proportionate share of the investment funds' income assuming the funds were liquidated as of each reporting date pursuant to each investment fund's governing agreements. A portion of this income will be allocated to non-controlling interest holders and will be reflected as compensation expense in the future.

REGULATION.

All aspects of our business are subject to extensive federal, state, and foreign laws and regulations. These laws and regulations are primarily intended to benefit or protect our clients and T. Rowe Price product shareholders. They generally grant supervisory agencies and bodies broad administrative powers, including the power to limit or restrict the conduct of our business in the event that we fail to comply with laws and regulations. Possible sanctions that may be imposed on us, in the event that we fail to comply, include the suspension of individual employees, limitations on engaging in certain business activities for specified periods of time, revocation of our investment adviser and other registrations, censures, and fines. Furthermore, the regulations to which we are subject continue to change over time, resulting in uncertainty for our business as we must adapt to new laws and regulatory regimes.

As a global company which offers its products to customers in a variety of jurisdictions, our subsidiaries are registered with or licensed by various U.S. and/or non-U.S. regulators. We are subject to various securities, compliance, corporate governance, disclosure, privacy, anti-bribery and anti-corruption, anti-money laundering, anti-terrorist financing, and economic, trade and sanctions laws and regulations, both domestically and internationally, as well as to various cross-border rules and regulations, and the data protection laws and regulations of numerous
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jurisdictions, including the General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) of the European Union (“EU”). We also must comply with complex and changing tax regimes in the jurisdictions where we operate our business.
The following table shows the regulator to certain of our subsidiaries:
 
RegulatorT. Rowe Price Entity
Within the U.S.
Securities & Exchange Commission - T. Rowe Price Associates - T. Rowe Price Hong Kong
 - T. Rowe Price International - T. Rowe Price Japan
 - T. Rowe Price Australia - T. Rowe Price Singapore
 - T. Rowe Price (Canada) - T. Rowe Price Advisory Services
 - T. Rowe Price Investment Management - Oak Hill Advisors
 - Oak Hill Advisors (Europe) - OHA (UK)
All entities above are registered as investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, which imposes substantive regulation around, among other things, fiduciary duties to clients, transactions with clients, effective compliance programs, conflicts of interest, advertising, recordkeeping, reporting, and disclosure requirements.
State of Maryland, Commissioner of Financial Regulation - T. Rowe Price Trust Company
Outside the U.S.
Financial Conduct Authority - T. Rowe Price International
 - T. Rowe Price UK
 - Oak Hill Advisors (Europe)
 - OHA (UK)
Securities and Futures Commission - T. Rowe Price Hong Kong
 - Oak Hill Advisors (Hong Kong)
Monetary Authority of Singapore - T. Rowe Price Singapore
Several provincial securities commissions in Canada - T. Rowe Price (Canada)
Commission de Surveillance du Secteur Financier  - T. Rowe Price (Luxembourg) Management Sàrl
 - OHA Services Sàrl
Australian Securities and Investments Commission - T. Rowe Price Australia
 - Oak Hill Advisors (Australia) Pty
Japan Financial Services Agency - T. Rowe Price Japan
Swiss Financial Market Supervisory Authority
 - T. Rowe Price (Switzerland)

Serving the needs of retirement savers is an important focus of our business. Such activities are subject to regulators such as the U.S. Department of Labor, and applicable laws and regulations including the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974.

Registrations
Our subsidiaries providing transfer agent services, T. Rowe Price Services and T. Rowe Price Retirement Plan Services, are registered under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
T. Rowe Price Investment Services is a registered broker-dealer and member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority ("FINRA") and the Securities Investor Protection Corporation. This subsidiary provides brokerage services to our U.S. mutual funds. Pershing, a third-party clearing broker and an affiliate of BNY Mellon, maintains our brokerage’s customer accounts and clears all transactions.
 
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T. Rowe Price Associates and certain subsidiaries are registered as commodity trading advisors and/or commodity pool operators with the Commodity Futures Trading Commission and are members of the National Futures Association. 

Net Capital Requirements
Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to net capital requirements, including those of various federal, state, and international regulatory agencies. Each of our subsidiary's net capital, as defined, meets or exceeds all minimum requirements.
 
For further discussion of the potential impact of current or proposed legal or regulatory requirements, please see the Legal and Regulatory risk factors included in Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

COMPETITION.

As a member of the financial services industry, we are subject to substantial competition in all aspects of our business. A significant number of proprietary and other sponsors’ mutual funds are sold to the public by other investment management firms, broker-dealers, mutual fund companies, banks, and insurance companies. We compete with brokerage and investment banking firms, insurance companies, banks, mutual fund companies, hedge funds, and other financial institutions and funds in all aspects of our business and in every country in which we offer our advisory services. Some of these financial institutions have greater resources than we do. We compete with other providers of investment advisory services primarily based on the availability and objectives of the investment products offered, investment performance, fees and related expenses, and the scope and quality of investment advice and other client services.

In recent years, we have faced significant competition from passive oriented investment strategies. As a result, such products have taken market share from active managers. While we cannot predict how much market share these competitors will gain, we believe there will always be demand for good active management investment products.

In order to maintain and enhance our competitive position, we may review acquisition and venture opportunities and, if appropriate, engage in discussions and negotiations that could lead to the acquisition of a new equity or other financial relationships.

HUMAN CAPITAL.

At T. Rowe Price, our people set us apart. We thrive because our company culture is based on collaboration and diversity. We believe that our culture of collaboration enables us to identify opportunities others might overlook. Our associates’ knowledge, insight, enthusiasm, and creativity are the reason our clients succeed and our firm excels. In order to attract and retain the highest quality talent, we develop key talent and succession plans, invest in Company diversity and inclusion initiatives, provide opportunities for our associates to learn and grow, provide strong, competitive, and regionally specific benefits and programs that promote the health and wellness of our associates, both personally and financially. Our diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives have garnered recognitions, including Pensions & Investments 2020 Best Places to Work in Money Management and Best Places to work for LGBTQ Equality by the Human Rights Campaign Foundation. Although we have made progress in our workforce diversity representation, we seek to continuously improve in this area. Our goal is to increase our hiring and the retention and development of talent from groups that are underrepresented in asset management, including both women and ethnically diverse individuals. Pursuant to this goal, each year we establish annual corporate diversity and inclusion goals to continue improving our hiring, development, advancement, and retention of diverse talent and our overall diversity representation. At the end of 2021, women comprised 44.1% of our associates globally. In addition, at the end of 2021, 29.9% of our U.S. associates were racially and ethnically diverse. Furthermore, we are committed to pay equity for employees doing similar work, regardless of gender, race or ethnicity, and we conduct pay equity analyses on a regular basis and adjust our associates pay accordingly.

At December 31, 2021, we employed 7,529 associates, a decrease of 1.9% from the 7,678 associates employed at the end of 2020. The decrease in the number of associates is directly a result of our expanded relationship with FIS Capital Markets US LLC ("FIS"), which began providing technology development and core operations for our full-service recordkeeping offering in August 2021, and in which approximately 800 T. Rowe Price operations and technology associates transitioned to FIS on August 1, 2021. On December 29, 2021, we added 333 associates as a result of the acquisition of OHA. We may add temporary and part-time personnel to our staff from time to time to meet periodic and special project demands, primarily for technology and mutual fund administrative services.
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AVAILABLE INFORMATION.
Our Internet address is troweprice.com. We intend to use our website as means of disclosing material non-public information and for complying with our disclosure obligations under Regulation FD. These disclosures will be included in the Investor Relations section of our website, troweprice.gcs-web.com. We make our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act, available free of charge in this section of our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they have been filed with the SEC. In addition, our website includes the following information:
our financial statement information from our periodic SEC filings in the form of XBRL data files that may be used to facilitate computer-assisted investor analysis;

corporate governance information including our governance guidelines, committee charters, senior officer code of ethics and conduct, and other governance-related policies;

other news and announcements that we may post from time to time that investors might find useful or interesting, including our monthly assets under management disclosure; and

opportunities to sign up for email alerts and RSS feeds to have information pushed in real time.

Accordingly, investors should monitor this section of our website, in addition to following our press releases, SEC filings, and public webcasts, all of which will be referenced on the website. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the information found on our website is not part of this or any other report we file with, or furnish to, the SEC.
The SEC maintains a website that contains the materials we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

Item 1A. Risk Factors.

An investment in our common stock involves various risks, including those mentioned below and those that are discussed from time to time in our periodic filings with the SEC. Investors should carefully consider these risks, along with the other information contained in this report, before making an investment decision regarding our common stock. There may be additional risks of which we are currently unaware, or which we currently consider immaterial. Any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, results of operations, and value of our common stock.

RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND THE FINANCIAL SERVICES INDUSTRY.

Our revenues are based on the market value and composition of the assets under our management, all of which are subject to fluctuation caused by factors outside of our control.

We derive our revenues primarily from investment advisory services provided by our subsidiaries to individual and institutional investors. Our investment advisory fees typically are calculated as a percentage of the market value of the assets under our management. As a result, our revenues are dependent on the value and composition of the assets under our management, all of which are subject to substantial fluctuation due to many factors, including:

Investment Performance. If the investment performance of our managed investment portfolios is less than that of our competitors or applicable third-party benchmarks, we could lose existing and potential clients and suffer a decrease in assets under management.
General Financial Market Declines. We derive a significant portion of our revenues from advisory fees on managed investment portfolios. A downturn in financial markets would cause the value of assets under our management to decrease, and may also cause investors to withdraw their investments, thereby further decreasing the level of assets under our management.
Investment Concentration. The allocation of investment products for assets under management within market segments or strategies may impact associated fees that can vary depending on product offerings.
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Investor Mobility. Our investors generally may withdraw their funds at any time, without advance notice and with little to no significant penalty.
Capacity Constraints. Prolonged periods of strong relative investment performance and/or strong investor inflows has resulted in and may result in capacity constraints within certain strategies, which can lead to, among other things, the closure of those strategies to new investors.
Investing Trends. Changes in investing trends, particularly investor preference for passive or alternative investment products as well as increasing investor preference for environmentally and socially responsible investment products, and changes in retirement savings trends, may reduce interest in our products and may alter our mix of assets under management.
Interest Rate Changes. Investor interest in and the valuation of our fixed income and multi-asset investment portfolios are affected by changes in interest rates.
Geo-Political Exposure. Our managed investment portfolios may have significant investments in markets that are subject to risk of loss from political or diplomatic developments, government policies, civil unrest, currency fluctuations, illiquidity and capital controls, and changes in legislation related to ownership limitations.

A decrease in the value of assets under our management, or an adverse change in their composition, particularly in market segments where our assets are concentrated, could have a material adverse effect on our investment advisory fees and revenues. For any period in which revenues decline, net income and operating margins will likely decline by a greater proportion because certain expenses will be fixed over that finite period and may not decrease in proportion to the decrease in revenues.

A majority of our revenues are based on contracts with the U.S. mutual funds that are subject to termination without cause and on short notice.

We provide investment advisory, distribution, and other administrative services to the U.S. mutual funds under various agreements. Investment advisory services are provided to each T. Rowe Price mutual fund under individual investment management agreements. The Board of each T. Rowe Price mutual fund must annually approve the terms of the investment management and service agreements and can terminate the agreement upon 60-days' notice. If a T. Rowe Price mutual fund seeks to lower the fees that we receive or terminate its contract with us, we would experience a decline in fees earned from the U.S. mutual funds, which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and net income.

We operate in an intensely competitive industry. Competitive pressures may result in a loss of clients and their assets or compel us to reduce the fees we charge to clients, thereby reducing our revenues and net income.

We are subject to competition in all aspects of our business from other financial institutions. Some of these financial institutions have greater resources than we do and may offer a broader range of financial products across more markets. Some competitors operate in a different regulatory environment than we do which may give them certain competitive advantages in the investment products and portfolio structures that they offer. We compete with other providers of investment advisory services primarily based on the availability and objectives of the investment products offered, investment performance, fees and related expenses, and the scope and quality of investment advice and other client services. Some institutions have proprietary products and distribution channels that make it more difficult for us to compete with them. Substantially all of our investment products are available without sales or redemption fees, which means that investors may be more willing to transfer assets to competing products.

The market environment in recent years has led investors to increasingly favor lower fee passive investment products. As a result, investment advisors that emphasize passive products have gained and may continue to gain market share from active managers like us. While we believe there will always be demand for strong performing active management, we cannot predict how much market share these competitors will gain.

As part of our continued efforts to attract and retain clients, we develop and launch new products and services, which may require expenditure of resources and may expose us to new regulatory or compliance requirements as well as increased risk of operational or client service errors.

In the event that we decide to reduce the fees we charge for investment advisory services in response to competitive pressures, which we have done selectively in the past, revenues and operating margins could be
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adversely impacted. Fee reductions may vary depending on strategy and product offerings, which could result in investment rebalancing or reallocation adversely impacting revenues and operating margins.

Our operations are complex and a failure to properly execute operational processes could have an adverse effect on our reputation and decrease our revenues.

We provide global investment management and administrative services to our clients. In certain cases, we rely on third-party service providers for the execution and delivery of these services. There can be no assurance that these vendors will properly perform these processes or that there will not be interruptions in services from these third parties. Failure to properly execute or oversee these services could have an adverse impact on our business, financial results and reputation, and subject us to regulatory sanctions, fines, penalties, or litigation.

New investment strategies, investment vehicles, distribution channels, or other evolutions of or additions to our business may increase the risk that our existing systems may not be adequate to control the risks introduced by such changes. Significant business changes may require us to update our processes or technology and may increase risk to meeting our business objectives. In addition, our information systems and technology platforms might not be able to accommodate our continued growth, and the cost of maintaining such systems might increase from its current level. If any of these factors were to arise it could disrupt our operations, increase our expenses or result in financial exposure, regulatory inquiry or reputational damage.

Our business model is dependent on our personnel, as well as others involved in our business, such as third-party vendors, providers and other intermediaries, who support internal controls, supervision, technology and training to provide comfort that our activities do not violate applicable guidelines, rules and regulations or adversely affect our clients, counterparties or us, and all of which are subject to potential human errors. Our personnel and others involved in our business may make errors that are not always immediately detected, which may disrupt our operations, cause losses, lead to regulatory fines or sanctions, litigation, or otherwise damage our reputation.

The quantitative models we use may contain errors, which could result in financial losses or adversely impact product performance and client relationships.

We use various quantitative models to support investment decisions and investment processes, including those related to portfolio management and portfolio risk analysis, as well as those related to client investment or savings advice or guidance. Any errors in the underlying models or model assumptions could have unanticipated and adverse consequences on our business and reputation.

Any damage to our reputation could harm our business and lead to a loss of revenues and net income or access to capital.

We have spent many years developing our reputation for integrity, strong investment performance, and superior client service. Our brand is a valuable intangible asset, but it is vulnerable to a variety of threats that can be difficult or impossible to control, and costly or even impossible to remediate. Regulatory inquiries and rumors can tarnish or substantially damage our reputation, even if those inquiries are satisfactorily addressed. Actual or perceived failure to adequately address the environmental, social, and governance ("ESG") expectations of our various stakeholders could lead to a tarnished reputation and loss of client assets or harm our access to capital. Furthermore, ESG issues have been the subject of increased focus by regulators and any inability to meet applicable requirements or expectations may adversely impact our reputation. Misconduct by our employees or third-party service providers could likewise adversely impact our reputation and lead to a loss of client assets. While we maintain policies, procedures, and controls to reduce the likelihood of unauthorized activities, we are subject to the risk that our associates or third parties acting on our behalf may circumvent controls or act in a manner inconsistent with our policies and procedures. Real or perceived conflicts between our clients’ interests and our own, as well as any fraudulent activity or other exposure of client assets or information, may impair our reputation and subject us to litigation or regulatory action. Any damage to our brand could impede our ability to attract and retain clients and key personnel, and reduce the amount of assets under our management, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our revenues and net income.


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Our expenses are subject to significant fluctuations that could materially decrease net income.

Our operating results are dependent on the level of our expenses, which can vary significantly for many reasons, including:

expenses incurred in connection with our multi-year strategic plan to strengthen our long-term competitive position;
variations in the level of total compensation expense due to changes in, among other things, bonuses, stock-based awards, employee benefit costs due to regulatory or plan design changes, our employee count and mix, competitive factors, market performance, and inflation;
changes in the level of our advertising and promotion expenses, including the costs of expanding investment advisory services to investors outside of the U.S. and further penetrating U.S. distribution channels;
expenses and capital costs incurred to maintain and enhance our administrative and operating services infrastructure, such as technology assets, depreciation, amortization, and research and development;
changes in the costs incurred for third-party vendors that perform certain administrative and operating services;
changes in expenses that are correlated to our assets under management, such as distribution and servicing fees;
a future impairment of investments that is recognized in our consolidated balance sheet;
a future impairment of goodwill that is recognized in our consolidated balance sheet;
unanticipated material fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates applicable to the costs of our operations abroad;
unanticipated costs incurred to protect investor accounts and client goodwill;
future changes to legal and regulatory requirements and potential litigation; and
disruptions of third-party services such as communications, power, and mutual fund transfer agent, investment management, trading, and accounting systems.

Under our agreements with the U.S. mutual funds, we charge the funds certain administrative fees and related expenses based upon contracted terms. If we fail to accurately estimate our underlying expense levels or are required to incur expenses relating to the mutual funds that are not otherwise paid by the funds, our operating results will be adversely affected. While we are under no obligation to provide financial support to any T. Rowe Price investment products, any financial support provided would reduce capital available for other purposes and may have an adverse effect on revenues and net income.

Our hedging strategies utilized to mitigate risk may not be effective, which could impact our earnings.

We employ hedging strategies related to our supplemental savings plan in order to hedge the liability related thereto. In the event that our hedging strategies are not effective, the resulting impact may adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.

Amendments to tax laws may impact the marketability of the products and services we offer our clients or the financial position of the Company.

We are subject to income taxes as well as non-income-based taxes, in both the United States and various foreign jurisdictions. We cannot predict future changes in the tax regulations to which we are subject, and these regulations could have a material impact on our tax liability or result in increased costs of our tax compliance efforts.
Additionally, changes in the status of tax deferred investment options, including retirement plans, tax-free municipal bonds, the capital gains and corporate dividend tax rates, and other individual and corporate tax rates could cause investors to view certain investment products less favorably and reduce investor demand for products and services we offer, which could have an adverse effect on our assets under management and revenues.

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Examinations and audits by tax authorities could result in additional tax payments for prior periods.

Based on the global nature of our business, from time to time we are subject to tax audits in various jurisdictions. The calculation of our tax liabilities involves dealing with uncertainties in the application of complex tax regulations in a multitude of jurisdictions across our global operations. Tax authorities may disagree with certain positions we have taken and assess additional taxes (and, in certain cases, interest, fines, or penalties). We have a process to evaluate whether to record tax liabilities for anticipated tax audit issues based on our estimate of whether, and the extent to which, additional income taxes will be due. We adjust these liabilities in light of changing facts and circumstances. Due to the complexity of some of these uncertainties, however, the ultimate resolution may result in a payment that is materially different from our estimates.

We have contracted with third-party financial intermediaries that distribute our investment products and such relationships may not be available or profitable to us in the future.

These contracted third-party intermediaries generally offer their clients various investment products in addition to, and in competition with, our investment products, and have no contractual obligation to encourage investment in our products. It would be difficult for us to acquire or retain the management of those assets without the assistance of the intermediaries, and we cannot assure that we will be able to maintain an adequate number of investment product offerings and successful distribution relationships. In addition, some investors rely on third-party financial planners, registered investment advisers, and other consultants or financial professionals to advise them on the choice of an investment adviser and investment products. These professionals and consultants can favor a competing investment product as better meeting their particular clients' needs. We cannot assure that our investment products will be among their recommended choices in the future. Further, their recommendations can change over time and we could lose their recommendation and their clients' assets under our management. Mergers, acquisitions, and other ownership or management changes could also adversely impact our relationships with these third-party intermediaries. As a result of these changes, more of our revenues may be concentrated with fewer intermediaries, which may impact our dependence on these intermediaries. The presence of any of the adverse conditions discussed above would reduce revenues and net income, possibly by material amounts.

Natural disasters and other unpredictable events could adversely affect our operations.

Armed conflicts, trade wars, tariffs or sanctions, terrorist attacks, cyberattacks, power failures, epidemics or pandemics, climate change, increased severity of weather events, or natural disasters and other events outside of our control could adversely affect our revenues, expenses, and net income by:

decreasing investment valuations in, and returns on, the investment portfolios that we manage,
causing disruptions in national or global economies that decrease investor confidence and make investment products generally less attractive,
incapacitating or inflicting losses of lives among our employees,
interrupting our business operations or those of critical service providers,
triggering technology delays or failures, and
requiring substantial capital expenditures and operating expenses to remediate damage, replace our facilities, and restore our operations.

A significant portion of our business operations are concentrated in the Baltimore, Maryland region; Colorado Springs, Colorado; and in London, England. In addition, we maintain offices with associates in many other global locations, including Sydney, Australia; Hong Kong; Singapore; Tokyo, Japan; and Luxembourg. We have developed various backup systems and contingency plans, but we cannot be assured that those preparations will be adequate in all circumstances that could arise, or that material interruptions and disruptions will not occur. We also rely to varying degrees on outside vendors for service delivery in addition to technology and disaster contingency support, and we cannot be assured that these vendors will be able to perform in an adequate and timely manner. If we lose the availability of any associates, or, if we are unable to respond adequately to such an event in a timely manner, we may be unable to timely resume our business operations, which could lead to financial losses, a tarnished reputation and loss of clients that could result in a decrease in assets under management, lower revenues, and materially reduced net income.

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Our business, financial condition, and results of operation may be adversely affected by the coronavirus or other global pandemics.

Since early 2020, global financial markets have been monitoring and reacting to the novel coronavirus pandemic. The spread of the coronavirus has created significant volatility, uncertainty and economic disruption to the global economy and may further impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. The coronavirus pandemic has adversely affected global financial markets and impacted global supply chains. Health concerns and uncertainty regarding continued coronavirus impacts could lead to further and/or increased volatility in global capital and credit markets, adversely affect our key executives and other personnel, clients, investors, providers, suppliers, lessees, and other third parties, and negatively impact our assets under management ("AUM"), revenues, income, business and operations. Since our revenue is based on the market value and composition of the assets under our management, the ultimate impact on global financial markets and our clients’ decisions related to this event could adversely affect our revenue and operating results.

Furthermore, while we have in place robust and well-established business continuity plans that address the potential impact to our associates and our facilities, and a comprehensive suite of technologies which enable our associates to work remotely and conduct business, and to date while we have been successful in navigating these challenges, no assurance can be given that the steps we have taken will continue to be effective or appropriate. Additionally, we must effectively ensure a safe working environment for associates working onsite in our offices, and adequately manage the post-pandemic transition from remote to onsite or a hybrid working environment. In the event that our associates become incapacitated by the coronavirus, our business operations may be impacted, which could lead to reputational and financial harm.

Our investment income and asset levels may be negatively impacted by fluctuations in our investment portfolio.

Separately from the investments we manage for our clients, we currently have a substantial investment portfolio. All of these investments are subject to investment market risk, and our non-operating investment income could be adversely affected by the realization of losses upon the disposition of our investments or the recognition of significant impairments or unrealized losses on these investments. In addition, related investment income has fluctuated significantly over the years depending upon the performance of our corporate investments, including the impact of market conditions and interest rates, and the size of our corporate money market and longer-term mutual fund holdings. Fluctuations in other investment income are expected to occur in the future.

We may review and pursue strategic transactions in order to maintain or enhance our competitive position and these could pose risks.

From time to time, we consider strategic opportunities, including potential acquisitions, dispositions, consolidations, organizational restructurings, joint ventures or similar transactions, any of which may impact our business. We cannot be certain that we will be able to identify, consummate and successfully complete such transactions, and no assurance can be given with respect to the timing, likelihood or business effect of any possible transaction. These initiatives typically involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges to our ongoing business operations. In addition, acquisitions and related transactions involve risks, including unanticipated problems regarding integration of investor account and investment security recordkeeping, additional or new regulatory requirements, operating facilities and technologies, and new employees; adverse effects on our earnings in the event acquired intangible assets or goodwill become impaired; and the existence of liabilities or contingencies not disclosed to or otherwise known by us prior to closing a transaction.

We own a 23% investment in UTI Asset Management Company Ltd ("UTI"), an Indian asset management company, and we may consider non-controlling minority investments in other entities in the future. We may not realize future returns from such investments or any collaborative activities that may develop in the future.

On December 29, 2021, we completed our acquisition of OHA. Important ongoing integration-related risks, including that the anticipated benefits of the transaction may not be fully realized, or may take longer to realize than expected, or that the integration may cost more or take longer than expected, could adversely impact our operating results. The ongoing integration of OHA is a time-consuming process that could distract our management and disrupt our business. A significant portion of OHA's revenue is derived from performance fees on investment advisory agreements and carried interest from general partner interests in affiliated private investment funds. Generally, OHA is entitled to a performance fee and carried interest under these agreements only in cases where the related
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portfolio investment return exceeds agreed-upon relative or absolute investment return thresholds, and there can be no assurance that these thresholds will be met.

We are exposed to risks arising from our international operations.

We operate in a number of jurisdictions outside of the United States. Our international operations require us to comply with the legal and regulatory requirements of various foreign jurisdictions and expose us to the political consequences of operating in foreign jurisdictions. Our foreign business operations are also subject to the following risks:

difficulty in managing, operating, and marketing our international operations;
fluctuations in currency exchange rates which may result in substantial negative effects on assets under our management, revenues, expenses, and assets in our U.S. dollar based financial statements; and
significant adverse changes in international legal and regulatory environments.

HUMAN CAPITAL RISKS.

Our success depends on our key personnel and our investment performance and financial results could be negatively affected by the loss of their services.

Our success depends on our highly skilled personnel, including our portfolio managers, investment analysts, sales and client relationship personnel, and corporate officers, many of whom have specialized expertise and extensive experience in our industry. Strong financial services professionals are in demand, and we face significant competition for highly qualified employees. Generally, our associates can terminate their employment with us at any time. We cannot assure that we will be able to attract or retain key personnel.

Due to the global nature of our investment advisory business, our key personnel may have reasons to travel to regions susceptible to higher risk of civil unrest, organized crime or terrorism, and we may be unable to ensure the safety of personnel traveling to these regions. We have near- and long-term succession planning processes, including programs to develop our future leaders, which are intended to address future talent needs and minimize the impact of losing key talent. However, in order to retain or replace our key personnel, we may be required to increase compensation, which would decrease net income. The loss of key personnel could damage our reputation and make it more difficult to retain and attract new employees and investors. Losses of assets from our client investors would decrease our revenues and net income, possibly materially.

LEGAL AND REGULATORY RISKS.

Compliance within a complex regulatory environment imposes significant financial and strategic costs on our business, and non-compliance could result in fines and penalties.

If we are unable to maintain compliance with applicable laws and regulations, we could be subject to criminal and civil liability, the suspension of our employees, fines, penalties, sanctions, injunctive relief, exclusion from certain markets, or temporary or permanent loss of licenses or registrations necessary to conduct our business. A regulatory proceeding, even if it does not result in a finding of wrongdoing or sanctions, could consume substantial expenditures of time and capital. Any regulatory investigation and any failure to maintain compliance with applicable laws and regulations could severely damage our reputation, adversely affect our ability to conduct business and decrease revenue and net income, and potentially result in complex litigation.

Legal and regulatory developments in the mutual fund and investment advisory industry could increase our regulatory burden, impose significant financial and strategic costs on our business, and cause a loss of, or impact the servicing of, our clients and fund shareholders.

Our regulatory environment is frequently altered by new regulations and by revisions to, and evolving interpretations of, existing regulations. New regulations present areas of uncertainty susceptible to alternative interpretations; regulators and prospective litigants may not agree with reasoned interpretations we adopt. Future changes could require us to modify or curtail our investment offerings and business operations or impact our expenses and
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profitability. Additionally, some regulations may not directly apply to our business but may impact the capital markets, service providers or have other indirect effects on our ability to provide services to our clients.

Potential impacts of current or proposed legal or regulatory requirements include, without limitation, the following:

As part of the debate in Washington, D.C. and in state legislatures, there has been increasing focus on the framework of the U.S. retirement system. We could experience adverse business impacts if legislative and regulatory changes limit retirement plans to certain products and services, or favor certain investment vehicles, that we do not offer, materially limit retirement savings opportunities or foster substantial outflows from retirement savings plans for non-retirement purposes.

There has been substantial regulatory and legislative activity at federal and state levels regarding standards of care for financial services firms, related to both retirement and taxable accounts and the United States Department of Labor intends to propose new fiduciary rules applicable to retirement plans and accounts that comprise a majority of our accounts. Actions taken by applicable regulatory or legislative bodies may impact our business activities and increase our costs.

The Federal Reserve Board has adopted final regulations related to non-bank Systemically Important Financial Institutions ("SIFIs"), and other jurisdictions are contemplating similar regulation. At this time, US regulators have not designated mutual funds or traditional asset managers as non-bank SIFIs. However, if any T. Rowe Price fund or T. Rowe Price affiliate was deemed a SIFI, increased regulatory oversight would apply to our business, which may include enhanced capital, liquidity, leverage, stress testing, resolution planning, and risk management requirements.

The Commodity Futures Trading Commission ("CFTC") regulation may limit the ability of certain T. Rowe Price investment products to use futures, swaps, and other derivatives. We have registered certain subsidiaries with the CFTC, subjecting us to additional regulatory requirements and costs, but also providing us additional flexibility to utilize such products. Nonetheless, there are still certain limitations on our investment products due to CFTC rules.

There has been increased global regulatory focus on the manner in which intermediaries are paid for distribution of mutual funds. Changes to long-standing market practices related to fees or enhanced disclosure requirements may negatively impact sales of mutual funds by intermediaries, especially if such requirements are not applied to other investment products.

We remain subject to various state, federal and international laws and regulations related to data privacy and protection of data we maintain concerning our clients and employees. These requirements continue to evolve, most commonly in ways that increase the complexity and costs of compliance. For example, California enacted the California Consumer Privacy Act of 2018 (the "CCPA") effective in January 1, 2020, which, among other things, significantly increased compliance obligations and the potential penalties for non-compliance, and California voters in November 2020 approved a replacement of this law effective January 1, 2023 with a new law that expands various requirements.

After the 2008 financial crisis, global regulations on over-the-counter derivatives spearheaded by The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in the United States and European Market Infrastructure Regulation in the European Union ("EU") have imposed clearing, margin, trade reporting, electronic trading and recordkeeping requirements on market participants. Alongside their general stabilizing and risk-reducing effect on the markets, these requirements have introduced operational complexity and additional costs to derivatives portfolios.

The revised Markets in Financial Instruments Directive ("MiFID II Directive") and Regulation ("MiFIR") (together “MiFID II”) applied across the EU and member states of the European Economic Area beginning on January 3, 2018. Implementation of MiFID II has significantly impacted both the structure and operation of EU financial markets. Some of the main changes introduced under MiFID II include applying enhanced disclosure requirements, enhancing conduct of business and governance requirements, broadening the scope of pre and post trade transparency, increasing transaction reporting requirements, transforming the relationship between client commissions and research, and further regulation of trading venues. Compliance with MiFID II has increased operational complexity and increased our costs. For example, we began to pay for third-party
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investment research used by our UK-based investment manager, T. Rowe Price International Ltd, in 2018, and we now pay for all the research needs of our investment professionals globally. 
New laws or regulations involving ESG integration and disclosure may materially impact the asset management industry. For example, the EU’s recent action plan on financing sustainable growth includes initiatives to integrate ESG into the financial system. Furthermore, the SEC and other regulators in the U.S. have announced plans to pursue similar initiatives, including additional disclosure obligations that would apply to our business operations, our employee and board diversity and other ESG-related matters.

We cannot predict the nature of future changes to the legal and regulatory requirements applicable to our business, nor the extent of the impacts that will result from current or future proposals. However, any such changes are likely to increase the costs of compliance and the complexity of our operations. They may also result in changes to our product or service offerings. The changing regulatory landscape may also impact a number of our service providers and, to the extent such providers alter their services or increase their fees, it may impact our expenses or those of the products we offer.

We may become involved in legal and regulatory proceedings that may not be covered by insurance.

We are subject to regulatory and governmental inquiries and civil litigation. An adverse outcome of any such proceeding could involve substantial financial penalties and costs. From time to time, various claims against us arise in the ordinary course of business, including employment-related claims. There also has been an increase in litigation and in regulatory investigations in the financial services industry in recent years, including client claims, class action suits, and government actions alleging substantial monetary damages and penalties.

We carry insurance in amounts and under terms that we believe are appropriate. We cannot be assured that our insurance will cover every liability and loss to which we may be exposed, or that our insurance policies will continue to be available at acceptable terms and fees. Certain insurance coverage may not be available or may be prohibitively expensive in future periods. As our insurance policies come up for renewal, we may need to assume higher deductibles or co-insurance liabilities, or pay higher premiums, which would increase our expenses and reduce our net income.

Net capital requirements may impede the business operations of our subsidiaries.

Certain of our subsidiaries are subject to net capital requirements imposed by various federal, state, and foreign authorities. Each of our subsidiaries’ net capital meets or exceeds all current minimum requirements; however, a significant change in the required net capital, an operating loss, or an extraordinary charge against net capital could adversely affect the ability of our subsidiaries to expand or maintain their operations if we were unable to make additional investments in them.

United Kingdom exit from European Union.

We have a significant locally authorized and regulated presence in the United Kingdom (“UK”) to support our global investment management business. We have realigned our European Union ("EU") and UK operations in response to the UK exit (“Brexit”) from the EU; however, we cannot predict the ultimate impact of Brexit on our operations or our business. We remain committed to our clients, associates and business expansion across the region.
TECHNOLOGY RISKS.

We require significant quantities and types of technology to operate our business and would be adversely affected if we fail to maintain adequate infrastructure to conduct or expand our operations or if our technology became inoperative or obsolete.

We depend on significant quantities of technology and, in many cases, highly specialized or proprietary or third-party licensed technology to support our business functions, including among others:

securities analysis,
securities trading,
portfolio management,
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client service,
accounting and internal financial reporting processes and controls,
data security and integrity, and
regulatory compliance and reporting.

All of our technology systems, including those provided by vendors, are vulnerable to disability or failures due to cyberattacks, natural disasters, power failures, acts of war or terrorism, sabotage, coding errors and other causes. A suspension or termination of vendor-provided software licenses or related support, upgrades, and maintenance could cause system delays or interruption. Although we have robust business and disaster recovery plans, if our technology systems, including those provided by vendors, were to fail and we were unable to recover in a timely way, we would be unable to fulfill critical business functions, which could lead to a loss of clients and could harm our reputation. A technological breakdown or disruption in services from a vendor could also interfere with our ability to comply with financial reporting and other regulatory requirements, exposing us to disciplinary action and liability to our clients.

In addition, our continued success depends on our ability to effectively integrate operations across many systems and/or countries, and to adopt new or adapt existing technologies to meet client, industry, and regulatory demands. We might be required to make significant capital expenditures to maintain competitive infrastructure. If we are unable to upgrade our infrastructure in a timely fashion, we might lose clients and fail to maintain regulatory compliance, which could affect our results of operations and severely damage our reputation.

A cyberattack or a failure to implement effective information and cybersecurity policies, procedures and capabilities could disrupt operations and cause financial losses.

We are dependent on the effectiveness of the information and cybersecurity policies, procedures and capabilities we maintain to protect our systems and data. An externally caused information security incident, such as a cyberattack, a phishing scam, virus, ransomware attack, denial-of-service attack, or an attack launched from within the Company could materially interrupt business operations or cause disclosure or modification of confidential client or competitive information. In addition, our third-party vendors and other intermediaries with which we conduct business and transmit data could be subject to a successful cyberattack or other information security event, and we cannot ensure that such third parties have all appropriate controls in place to protect the confidentiality of information in the custody of those third parties or to allow them to continue their business operations, including their services to us, in a timely manner.

There have been increasing numbers of publicized cybersecurity incidents in recent years impacting other financial services firms as well as firms in other industries. Our use of third-party vendors and cloud technologies could heighten this risk. Should the technology operations on which we rely be compromised, we may have to make significant investments to upgrade, repair or replace our technology infrastructure or third-party vendors and may not be able to make such investments on a timely basis. Although we maintain insurance coverage that we believe is reasonable, prudent and adequate for the purpose of our business, it may be insufficient to protect us against all losses and costs stemming from breaches of security, cyberattacks and other types of unlawful activity, or any resulting disruptions from such events.

We could be subject to losses if we fail to properly safeguard and maintain confidential information.

As part of our normal operations, we maintain and transmit confidential information about our clients, associates and other parties, as well as, proprietary information relating to our business operations. We maintain a system of internal controls designed to provide reasonable assurance that both inadvertent errors and fraudulent activity, including misappropriation of assets, fraudulent financial reporting, and unauthorized access to sensitive or confidential data, is either prevented or detected in a timely manner. We also leverage cloud-based solutions for the transmission and storage of this information. Our systems, or those of third-party service providers we may use to maintain and transmit such information, could be victimized by unauthorized users or corrupted by computer viruses or other malicious software code. Additionally, authorized persons could inadvertently or intentionally release or alter confidential or proprietary information. Such disclosure could, among other things:

seriously damage our reputation,
allow competitors access to our proprietary business information,
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subject us to liability for a failure to safeguard data of clients, associates, and other parties,
result in the termination of contracts by our existing clients,
subject us to regulatory action and potential litigation, and
require significant capital and operating expenditures to investigate and remediate the breach.

Furthermore, if any person, including any of our associates, negligently disregards or intentionally overrides or circumvents our established controls with respect to confidential data, or otherwise mismanages or misappropriates that data, we could be subject to significant monetary damages, regulatory enforcement actions, fines and/or criminal prosecution in one or more jurisdictions.

We are subject to numerous laws and regulations designed to protect this information, such as U.S. federal and state laws and foreign laws and regulations governing the protection of personal or confidential data, such as the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation. Governmental authorities throughout the U.S. and around the world have enacted or are considering similar types of legislative and regulatory proposals concerning data protection. Additionally, the Federal Trade Commission and many state attorneys general are interpreting federal and state consumer protection laws to impose standards for the collection, use, dissemination and security of data. Each of these privacy, security, and data protection laws and regulations could impose significant limitations, require changes to our business, or restrict our use or storage of personal information, which may increase our compliance expenses and make our business more costly or less efficient to conduct.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments.

None.

Item 2.Properties.

Our corporate headquarters occupies 472,000 square feet of space under lease at 100 East Pratt Street in Baltimore, Maryland. In December 2020, we announced that we are moving our headquarters in 2024 to a complex to be built with approximately 550,000 square feet of space under lease in Baltimore, Maryland. In 2024, we will vacate the space at 100 East Pratt Street.

We have offices in 16 countries around the world, including the U.S.

Our operating and servicing activities are largely conducted at owned facilities in campus settings comprising 1.1 million square feet on two parcels of land in close proximity to Baltimore in Owings Mills, Maryland, and about 290,000 square feet in Colorado Springs, Colorado. We also maintain a nearly 60,000 square foot technology support facility in Hagerstown, Maryland.

We lease all our offices outside the U.S. with London and Hong Kong being our largest, as well as our business operations recovery site in Maryland, our technology development center in New York City, and offices in San Francisco, Washington D.C. and Philadelphia.

The acquisition of OHA adds leased offices in the United States (New York City, Fort Worth, and San Francisco), United Kingdom (London), Australia (Sydney), Hong Kong, and Luxembourg.

Information concerning our anticipated capital expenditures in 2022 is set forth in the capital resources and liquidity and material cash commitments discussions in Item 7 of this Form 10-K and our future minimum rental payments under noncancellable operating leases at December 31, 2021 is set forth in the Leases footnote to our audited consolidated financial statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

Item 3.Legal Proceedings.

For information about our legal proceedings, please see our Commitments and Contingencies footnote to our audited consolidated financial statements in Item 8. of this Form 10-K.

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Item 4.Mine Safety Disclosures.

Not applicable.

Information about our Executive Officers.

The following information includes the names, ages, and positions of our executive officers as of February 24, 2022. There are no arrangements or understandings pursuant to which any person serves as an officer. The first eleven individuals are members of our management committee.

Robert W. Sharps (50), Chief Executive Officer since 2022, a Director and President since 2021, Head of Investments from 2018 to 2021, Group Chief Investment Officer from 2017 to 2021, Co-Head of Global Equity from 2017 to 2018, Lead Portfolio Manager, Institutional U.S. Large-Cap Equity Growth Strategy from 2001 to 2016, and a Vice President from 2001 to 2021.

Jennifer B. Dardis (49), Chief Financial Officer and Treasurer since 2021, Head of Finance in 2021 and Head of Corporate Strategy from 2016 to 2021, and a Vice President from 2010.

Glenn August (60), Chief Executive Officer of Oak Hill Advisors, L.P. (“OHA”), a Director and Vice President since 2021. He founded OHA in 1990.

Robert C.T. Higginbotham (54), Head of Global Distribution since 2019 and interim Chief Operating Officer since 2021, Head of Global Investment Management Services from 2018 to 2019, Head of Global Investment Services from 2012 to 2018, and a Vice President since 2012.

Stephon A. Jackson (59), Head of T. Rowe Price Investment Management since 2020, Associate Head of U.S Equity from 2020 to 2021, and a Vice President since 2007.

Andrew C. McCormick (61), Head of Fixed Income since 2019 and chief investment officer since 2022, Head of U.S. Taxable Bond from 2013 to 2018, and a Vice President since 2008.

Josh Nelson (45), Head of U.S. Equity since 2022, Associate Head of U.S. Equity in 2021, Director of Equity Research North America from 2019 to 2021, and a Vice President since 2007.

David Oestreicher (54), General Counsel since 2020, Corporate Secretary since 2012, and a Vice President since 2001. From 2009 through 2020, Mr. Oestreicher was the Chief Legal Counsel.

Sebastien Page (45), Head of Global Multi-Asset and a Vice President since 2015 and chief investment officer since 2022.

Justin Thomson (54), Head of International Equity since 2021, chief investment officer since 2017, Co-Head of Global Equity in 2021, and a Vice President since 2001.

Eric L. Veiel (50), Head of Global Equity and chief investment officer since 2022. Co-Head of Global Equity from 2018 to 2021, Head of U.S. Equity from 2016 to 2021, Director of Equity Research North America from 2014 to 2015, and a Vice President since 2006.

Jessica M. Hiebler (46), Principal Accounting Officer since 2010, Controller since 2020 and a Vice President since 2009.
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PART II

Item 5.Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.

Our common stock ($.20 par value per share) trades on the NASDAQ Global Select Market under the symbol TROW. Dividends per share during the past two years were:
1st
quarter
2nd
quarter
3rd
quarter
4th
quarter
2021$1.08 $4.08 $1.08 $1.08 
2020$.90 $.90 $.90 $.90 

The cash dividends declared during the second quarter of 2021 include a special dividend of $3.00 per share that was declared in June 2021 and paid in July 2021.

Our common stockholders have approved all of our equity-based compensation plans. These plans provide for the following issuances of shares of our common stock at December 31, 2021:
Employee and non-employee director plansEmployee stock purchase planTotal
Exercise of outstanding options2,846,579 — 2,846,579 
Settlement of outstanding restricted stock units5,795,395 — 5,795,395 
Future issuances11,584,645 1,320,803 12,905,448 
Total20,226,619 1,320,803 21,547,422 

The outstanding options included in the table above have a weighted-average exercise price of $72.87. Under the terms of the 2020 Long-Term Incentive Plan, approved by stockholders in May 2020, and the 2012 Long-Term Incentive Plan, the number of shares provided and available for future issuance will increase as we repurchase common stock in the future with the proceeds from stock option exercises. No shares have been issued under our Employee Stock Purchase Plan since its inception; all shares have been purchased in the open market.

The following table presents repurchase activity during the fourth quarter of 2021.
MonthTotal number of
shares purchased
Average price
paid per share
Total number of
shares purchased as
part of publicly
announced program
Maximum number of
shares that may yet
be purchased under
the program
October1,642,691 $198.35 1,642,144 16,936,065 
November502,337 $211.52 499,434 16,436,631 
December912,105 $195.49 910,721 15,525,910 
Total3,057,133 $199.66 3,052,299 

Shares repurchased by us in a quarter may include repurchases conducted pursuant to publicly announced board authorizations, outstanding shares surrendered to the company to pay the exercise price in connection with swap exercises of employee stock options and shares withheld to cover the minimum tax withholding obligation associated with the vesting of restricted stock awards. Of the total number of shares purchased during the fourth quarter of 2021, 4,834 were related to shares surrendered in connection with employee stock option exercises and none were related to shares withheld to cover tax withholdings associated with the vesting of restricted stock awards.


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The following table details the changes in and status of the Board of Directors’ outstanding publicly announced board authorizations.
Authorization dates12/31/2020Additional shares authorizedTotal Number of
Shares Purchased
Maximum Number of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased at 12/31/2021
February 20196,467,311 — (5,941,401)525,910 
March 202015,000,000 — — 15,000,000 
21,467,311 — (5,941,401)15,525,910 

We have 1,044 stockholders of record and approximately 510,000 beneficial stockholder accounts held by brokers, banks, and other intermediaries holding our common stock. Common stock owned outright by our associates and directors, combined with outstanding vested stock options and unvested restricted stock awards, total approximately 9% of our outstanding stock and outstanding vested stock options at December 31, 2021.

Item 6.Reserved

Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

OVERVIEW.

Our 2021 revenues and net income are derived primarily from investment advisory services provided to individual and institutional investors in U.S. mutual funds, subadvised funds, separately managed accounts, collective investment trusts, and other T. Rowe Price products. The other T. Rowe Price products include: open-ended investment products offered to investors outside the U.S. and products offered through variable annuity life insurance plans in the U.S. We also provide certain investment advisory clients with related administrative services, including distribution, mutual fund transfer agent, accounting, and shareholder services; participant recordkeeping and transfer agent services for defined contribution retirement plans; brokerage; trust services; and non-discretionary advisory services through model delivery.

We manage a broad range of U.S., international and global stock, bond, and money market mutual funds and collective investment trusts and other investment products, which meet the varied needs and objectives of individual and institutional investors. Investment advisory revenues depend largely on the total value and composition of assets under our management. Accordingly, fluctuations in financial markets and in the composition of assets under management affect our revenues and results of operations. Additionally, approximately 30% of our operating expenses for the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020 and 2019 are impacted by changes in assets under management.

We incur significant expenditures to develop new products and services and improve and expand our capabilities and distribution channels in order to attract new investment advisory clients and additional investments from our existing clients. These efforts often involve costs that precede any future revenues that we may recognize from an increase to our assets under management.

The general trend to passive investing has been persistent and accelerated in recent years, which has negatively impacted our new client inflows. However, over the long term we expect well-executed active management to play an important role for investors. In this regard, we have ample liquidity and resources that allow us to take advantage of attractive growth opportunities. We are investing in key capabilities, including investment professionals, distribution professionals, technologies, and new product offerings; and, most importantly, we provide our clients with strong investment management expertise and service.

On December 29, 2021, we completed our acquisition of Oak Hill Advisors, L.P., a leading alternative credit manager, and other entities that had common ownership (collectively, OHA). We acquired 100% of the equity interests of Oak Hill Advisors, L.P., 100% of the equity interests in entities that make co-investments in certain affiliated private investment funds (the "co-investment entities") and a majority of the equity interests in entities that have interests in general partners of affiliated private investment funds and are entitled to a disproportionate allocation of income (the "carried interest entities"). The acquisition of OHA included $57 billion of capital under management, of which $47 billion of fee-basis assets under management was added to our assets under management as of the date of the acquisition. The acquisition accelerates our expansion into alternatives
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investment markets and complements our existing global platform and ongoing strategic initiatives in our core investments and distribution capabilities. Alternative credit strategies continue to be in demand from investors across the globe seeking attractive yields and risk-adjusted returns.

MARKET TRENDS.

Even though the coronavirus pandemic continued, major U.S. stock indexes climbed in 2021, extending the brisk rebound that started in late-March 2020. Equities advanced as the economy reopened and recovered—facilitated by the rollout of coronavirus vaccines and some federal fiscal relief—and as corporations reported robust earnings growth. Elevated inflation stemming in part from shortages of some goods and materials amid global supply chain disruptions, the emergence of variants of the coronavirus, and the Federal Reserve’s decision to taper its monthly asset purchases starting in November were among the factors that have weighed on the financial markets.

Stocks in developed non-U.S. equity markets rose but lagged U.S. shares. European stock markets were broadly positive in U.S. dollar terms. Several markets produced gains exceeding 20%. Shares in Spain and Portugal trailed with gains of less than 2%. Developed Asian markets were mixed in dollar terms. Hong Kong stocks fell about 4% due in part to the Chinese government’s regulatory crackdown in certain sectors, as well as concerns about some highly indebted firms in the Chinese property market. Japanese shares gained about 2%.

Stocks in emerging markets generally declined in U.S. dollar terms, as currency weakness versus the dollar reduced local returns to U.S. investors. In Asia, stocks in Taiwan and India surged almost 27%, but Chinese shares fell nearly 22% amid the government’s regulatory crackdown and concerns about the property market. Latin American markets were also mixed, as several countries struggled with political uncertainty, currency weakness, and elevated inflation that prompted central banks to raise short-term interest rates. Stocks in most emerging European markets appreciated, but Turkish shares and the lira plunged as the central bank reduced short-term interest rates in the final months of the year despite elevated inflation.

Returns of several major equity market indexes for 2021 are as follows:
S&P 500 Index28.7%
NASDAQ Composite Index(1)
21.4%
Russell 2000 Index14.8%
MSCI EAFE (Europe, Australasia, and Far East) Index11.8%
MSCI Emerging Markets Index(2.2)%
(1) Returns exclude dividends

Global bond returns were mostly negative amid rising bond market interest rates and, as the year progressed, growing expectations for major central banks to curtail their stimulus efforts. In the U.S., yields rose across the Treasury yield curve—especially in the intermediate-term portion of the curve—amid expectations that the Federal Reserve’s tapering of monthly asset purchases, which began in November, will be a prelude to tighter monetary policy sometime in 2022. The 10-year U.S. Treasury note yield increased from 0.93% to 1.52% in 2021.

In the U.S. taxable investment-grade universe, Treasury securities performed worst, while corporate, mortgage-backed, and commercial mortgage-backed securities fell to a lesser extent. Asset-backed securities held up best, albeit with slight losses. Tax-free municipal securities produced positive returns, as municipal yields rose less than comparable Treasury yields. High yield bonds strongly outperformed for the year.

Bonds in developed non-U.S. markets declined in U.S. dollar terms, as a stronger U.S. dollar versus the yen, the euro, and other currencies reduced local returns to U.S. investors. Emerging markets bonds also declined, as bond yields increased and many emerging countries raised short-term interest rates in an attempt to stem inflation. Local currency issues fared worse than dollar-denominated debt, as most emerging markets currencies declined against the dollar.

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Returns of several major bond market indexes for 2021 are as follows:
Bloomberg Barclays U.S. Aggregate Bond Index(1.5)%
JPMorgan Global High Yield Index    4.9%
Bloomberg Barclays Municipal Bond Index1.5%
Bloomberg Barclays Global Aggregate Ex-U.S. Dollar Bond Index(7.1)%
JPMorgan Emerging Markets Bond Index Plus(4.5)%

ASSETS UNDER MANAGEMENT.

Assets under management ended 2021 at $1,687.8 billion, an increase of $217.3 billion from the end of 2020. This increase was primarily driven by market appreciation and income, net of distributions not reinvested, of $198.9 billion. The acquisition of OHA completed on December 29, 2021 included $57 billion of capital under management (which includes net assets value, portfolio value and/or unfunded capital), of which $46.9 million of fee-basis assets under management are included in the assets under management in the tables below. These increases were partially offset by net cash outflows of $28.5 billion for 2021. Clients transferred $23.8 billion in net assets from the U.S. mutual funds primarily to collective investment trusts, of which $16.2 billion transferred into the retirement date trusts.

The following table details changes in our assets under management by vehicle during the last three years:
(in billions)U.S. mutual fundsSubadvised and separate accountsCollective investment trusts and other investment productsPrivate investment funds and CLOsTotal
Assets under management at December 31, 2018$564.5 $250.0 $147.8 $— $962.3 
Net cash flows before client transfers7.6 (.3)5.9 — 13.2 
Client transfers(1)
(23.2)1.1 22.1 — — 
Net cash flows after client transfers(15.6).8 28.0 — 13.2 
Net market depreciation, net of income135.6 63.0 34.5 — 233.1 
Distributions not reinvested(1.8)— — — (1.8)
Change during the period118.2 63.8 62.5 — 244.5 
Assets under management at December 31, 2019682.7 313.8 210.3 — 1,206.8 
Net cash flows before client transfers(11.5)8.0 9.1 — 5.6 
Client transfers(1)
(13.7)2.0 11.7 — — 
Net cash flows after client transfers(25.2)10.0 20.8 — 5.6 
Net market appreciation and income140.0 76.3 43.7 — 260.0 
Distributions not reinvested(2.9)— (.2)— (3.1)
Acquired assets under management— — 1.2 — 1.2 
Change during the period111.9 86.3 65.5 — 263.7 
Assets under management at December 31, 2020794.6 400.1 275.8 — 1,470.5 
Net cash flows before client transfers(4.9)(34.0)10.4 — (28.5)
Client transfers(1)
(23.8)2.7 21.1 — — 
Net cash flows after client transfers(28.7)(31.3)31.5 — (28.5)
Net market appreciation and income111.8 57.4 36.2 — 205.4 
Distributions not reinvested(6.3)— (.2)— (6.5)
Change during the period76.8 26.1 67.5 — 170.4 
Preacquisition assets under management at December 31, 2021871.4 426.2 343.3 — $1,640.9 
Acquired fee-basis assets under management— 10.9 — 36.0 46.9 
Assets under management at December 31, 2021$871.4 $437.1 $343.3 $36.0 $1,687.8 
(1) In all three years, the majority of the client transfers were from the T. Rowe Price U.S. mutual funds to the T. Rowe Price collective investment trusts, which are included in collective investment trusts and other investment products.

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The following table details changes in our assets under management by asset class during the last three years:
(in billions)EquityFixed income, including money market
Multi-asset(1)
Alternatives(2)
Total
Assets under management at December 31, 2018$539.9 $136.1 $286.3 $— $962.3 
Net cash flows(.2)3.5 9.9 — 13.2 
Net market depreciation, net of income(3)
159.2 8.3 63.8 — 231.3 
Change during the period159.0 11.8 73.7 — 244.5 
Assets under management at December 31, 2019698.9 147.9 360.0 — 1,206.8 
Net cash flows— 14.1 (8.5)— 5.6 
Net market appreciation and income(3)
196.9 5.5 54.5 — 256.9 
Acquired assets under management— 1.2 — — 1.2 
Change during the period196.9 20.8 46.0 — 263.7 
Assets under management at December 31, 2020895.8 168.7 406.0 — 1,470.5 
Net cash flows(44.6)1.2 14.9 — (28.5)
Net market appreciation and income(3)
141.5 .6 56.8 — 198.9 
Change during the period96.9 1.8 71.7 — 170.4 
Preacquisition assets under management at December 31, 2021992.7 170.5 477.7 — $1,640.9 
Acquired fee-basis assets under management— 5.2 — 41.7 46.9 
Assets under management at December 31, 2021$992.7 $175.7 $477.7 $41.7 $1,687.8 
(1) The underlying assets under management of the multi-asset portfolios have been aggregated and presented in this category and not reported in the equity and fixed income columns.
(2) The alternatives asset class includes strategies authorized to invest more than 50% of its holdings in private credit, leveraged loans,     mezzanine, real assets/CRE, structured products, stressed / distressed, non-investment grade CLOs, special situations, or have absolute return as its investment objective. Generally, only those strategies with longer than daily liquidity are included.
(2) Reported net of distributions not reinvested.

Investment advisory clients outside the U.S. account for 9.9% of our assets under management at December 31, 2021 and 9.3% at December 31, 2020. The percentage at December 31, 2021 reflects the assets under management from OHA's clients outside the United States.

Our net cash flows in 2021 reflect net outflows from domestic equity as well as domestic fixed income. These outflows also reflect the redemption of about $2.5 billion from our U.S. mutual fund investments to fund the cash portion of the OHA acquisition. These outflows were partially offset by cash inflows in our multi-asset franchise and international fixed income. From a geography perspective, the Americas and EMEA regions experienced net outflows predominantly in equity in both regions, while APAC had positive net flows. Net cash flows for 2020 reflect positive flows into fixed income and international equity, while experiencing net outflows in domestic equity and our multi-asset franchise resulting from macroeconomic headwinds and ongoing pressure from passive investments. Net cash flows for 2019 were driven by diversified inflows across distribution channels and geographies, the strength of our multi-asset franchise, and positive flows into fixed income and international equity.


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Our target date retirement products, which are included in the multi-asset totals shown above, continue to be a significant part of our assets under management. Assets under management in our target date retirement products as well as net cash inflows/(outflows), by vehicle, are as follows:
Assets under managementNet cash inflows/(outflows) for year ended
(in billions)12/31/2112/31/2012/31/1912/31/2112/31/2012/31/19
U.S. mutual funds$187.1 $176.1 $164.8 $(12.5)$(12.7)$(10.8)
Collective investment trusts191.1 145.4 119.2 23.2 5.4 19.5 
Separately managed accounts12.9 10.7 8.4 .6 .8 1.1 
$391.1 $332.2 $292.4 $11.3 $(6.5)$9.8 

The firm also provides strategic investment advice solutions for certain portfolios. These advice solutions, which the vast majority is overseen by our multi-asset division, may include strategic asset allocation, and in certain portfolios, asset selection and/or tactical asset allocation overlays. The firm also offers advice solutions through retail separately managed accounts and separately managed accounts model delivery. As of December 31, 2021, total assets in these solutions were $488 billion, of which $480 billion are included in our reported assets under management in the tables above.

We provide participant accounting and plan administration for defined contribution retirement plans that invest in the firm's U.S. mutual funds, collective investment trusts and funds managed outside of the firm's complex. As of December 31, 2021, our assets under administration were $270 billion, of which nearly $163 billion are assets we manage.

INVESTMENT PERFORMANCE(1).

Strong investment performance and brand awareness is a key driver to attracting and retaining assets—and to our long-term success. The following table presents investment performance for the one-, three-, five-, and 10-years ended December 31, 2021. Past performance is no guarantee of future results.

% of U.S. mutual funds that outperformed Morningstar median(2),(3)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity38%64%68%85%
Fixed Income74%55%56%57%
Multi-Asset55%72%82%90%
All Funds55%63%68%76%
% of U.S. mutual funds that outperformed passive peer median(2),(4)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity36%59%61%63%
Fixed Income62%65%55%50%
Multi-Asset53%76%74%86%
All Funds49%66%63%65%
% of composites that outperformed benchmarks(5)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity39%62%70%77%
Fixed Income61%70%78%77%
All Composites47%65%73%77%

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AUM Weighted Performance
% of U.S. mutual funds AUM that outperformed Morningstar median(2),(3)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity39%50%80%92%
Fixed Income93%65%57%61%
Multi-Asset85%94%95%96%
All Funds55%62%81%90%
% of U.S. mutual funds AUM that outperformed passive peer median(2),(4)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity32%45%58%51%
Fixed Income84%61%45%51%
Multi-Asset83%95%95%96%
All Funds48%57%65%62%
% of composites AUM that outperformed benchmarks(5)
1 year3 years5 years10 years
Equity33%60%68%77%
Fixed Income80%78%76%74%
All Composites40%63%69%77%

As of December 31, 2021, 72 of 123 (58.5%) of our rated U.S. mutual funds (across primary share classes) received an overall rating of 4 or 5 stars. By comparison, 32.5% of Morningstar's fund population is given a rate of 4 or 5 stars(6). In addition, 71%(6) of AUM in our rated U.S. mutual funds (across primary share classes) ended 2021 with an overall rating of 4 or 5 stars.

(1) The investment performance reflects that of T. Rowe Price sponsored mutual funds and composites AUM and not of OHA's products.
(2) Source: © 2021 Morningstar, Inc. All rights reserved. The information contained herein: 1) is proprietary to Morningstar and/or its content providers; 2) may not be copied or distributed; and 3) is not warranted to be accurate, complete, or timely. Neither Morningstar nor its content providers are responsible for any damages or losses arising from any use of this information.
(3) Source: Morningstar. Primary share class only. Excludes money market mutual funds, funds with an operating history of less than one year, T. Rowe Price passive funds, and T. Rowe Price funds that are clones of other funds. The top chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price funds with 1 year, 3 year, 5 year, and 10 year track record that are outperforming the Morningstar category median. The bottom chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price funds AUM that has outperformed for the time periods indicated. Total Fund AUM included for this analysis includes $521B for 1 year, $521B for 3 years, $520B for 5 years, and $511B for 10 years.
(4) Passive Peer Median was created by T. Rowe Price using data from Morningstar. Primary share class only. Excludes money market mutual funds, funds with an operating history of less than one year, funds with fewer than three peers, T. Rowe Price passive funds, and T. Rowe Price funds that are clones of other funds. This analysis compares T. Rowe Price active funds to the applicable universe of passive/index open-end funds and ETFs of peer firms. The top chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price funds with 1 year, 3 year, 5 year, and 10 year track record that are outperforming the passive peer universe. The bottom chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price funds AUM that has outperformed for the time periods indicated. Total AUM included for this analysis includes $499B for 1 year, $491B for 3 years, $489B for 5 years, and $424B for 10 years.
(5)Composite net returns are calculated using the highest applicable separate account fee schedule. Excludes money market composites. All composites compared to official GIPS composite primary benchmark. The top chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price composites with 1 year, 3 year, 5 year, and 10 year track record that are outperforming their benchmarks. The bottom chart reflects the percentage of T. Rowe Price composite AUM that has outperformed for the time periods indicated. Total AUM included for this analysis includes $1,506B for 1 year, $1,504B for 3 years, $1,499B for 5 years, and $1,461B for 10 years.
(6) The Morningstar Rating™ for funds is calculated for funds with at least a three-year history. Exchange-traded funds and open-ended mutual funds are considered a single population for comparative purposes. It is calculated based on a Morningstar Risk-Adjusted Return measure that accounts for variation in a managed product's monthly excess performance, placing more emphasis on downward variations and rewarding consistent performance. Morningstar gives its best ratings of 5 or 4 stars to the top 32.5% of all funds (of the 32.5%,10% get 5 stars and 22.5% get 4 stars). The Overall Morningstar Rating™ is derived from a weighted average of the performance figures associated with a fund’s 3, 5, and 10 year (if applicable) Morningstar Rating™ metrics.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS.

The following table and discussion set forth information regarding our consolidated financial results for 2021, 2020 and 2019 on a U.S. GAAP basis and a non-GAAP basis. The non-GAAP basis adjusts for the impact of our consolidated T. Rowe Price investment products, the impact of market movements on the supplemental savings plan liability and related economic hedges, investment income related to certain other investments, and certain nonrecurring charges and gains, including in 2021, transaction costs associated with the acquisition of OHA.

We completed our acquisition of OHA on December 29, 2021; however, our results of operations do not include any financial results of OHA for 2021 as the OHA activity between the closing date and December 31, 2021 was deemed to be immaterial. We currently expect acquisition-related intangibles amortization, fair value adjustments of contingent consideration, acquisition-related retention compensation expense, and other acquisition-related expenses to impact our operating results beginning in 2022.
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2021 compared with 20202020 compared with 2019
(in millions, except per-share data)202120202019$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
U.S. GAAP basis
Investment advisory fees$7,098.1 $5,693.1 $5,112.5 $1,405.0 24.7 %$580.6 11.4 %
Net revenues$7,671.9 $6,206.7 $5,617.9 $1,465.2 23.6 %$588.8 10.5 %
Operating expenses$3,961.9 $3,461.0 $3,230.9 $500.9 14.5 %$230.1 7.1 %
Net operating income$3,710.0 $2,745.7 $2,387.0 $964.3 35.1 %$358.7 15.0 %
Non-operating income(1)
$284.6 $496.5 $540.3 $(211.9)n/m$(43.8)n/m
Net income attributable to
T. Rowe Price Group
$3,082.9 $2,372.7 $2,131.3 $710.2 29.9 %$241.4 11.3 %
Diluted earnings per common share$13.12 $9.98 $8.70 $3.14 31.5 %$1.28 14.7 %
Weighted average common shares outstanding assuming dilution228.8 231.2 238.6 (2.4)(1.0)%(7.4)(3.1)%
Adjusted non-GAAP basis(2)
Operating expenses$3,840.3 $3,342.7 $3,149.8 $497.6 14.9 %$192.9 6.1 %
Net income attributable to
T. Rowe Price Group
$2,995.3 $2,276.8 $1,975.6 $718.5 31.6 %$301.2 15.2 %
Diluted earnings per common share$12.75 $9.58 $8.07 $3.17 33.1 %$1.51 18.7 %
Assets under management (in billions)
Average assets under management(3)
$1,599.3 $1,247.9 $1,109.3 $351.4 28.2 %$138.6 12.5 %
Ending assets under management$1,687.8 $1,470.5 $1,206.8 $217.3 14.8 %$263.7 21.9 %
(1) The percentage change in non-operating income is not meaningful (n/m).
(2) See the reconciliation to the comparable U.S. GAAP measures at the end of the Results of Operations section of this Management's Discussion and Analysis.
(3) Average assets under management for 2021 does not include the impact of the acquired fee-basis assets under management related to the OHA acquisition.

Results Overview - 2021 as compared to 2020

Investment advisory revenues. Investment advisory fees are earned based on the value and composition of our assets under management, which change based on fluctuations in financial markets and net cash flows. As our average assets under management increase or decrease in a given period, the level of our investment advisory fee revenue for that same period generally fluctuates in a similar manner. Our annualized effective fee rates can be impacted by market or cash flow related shifts among asset and share classes, price changes in existing products, and asset level changes in products with tiered-fee structures.

Investment advisory revenues earned in 2021 increased 24.7% over the comparable 2020 period as average assets under our management increased $351.4 billion, or 28.2%, to $1,599.3 billion. In 2021, we voluntarily waived $57.9 million, or less than 1%, of our investment advisory fees from certain of our money market mutual funds, trusts, and other investment portfolios in order to maintain a positive yield for investors. At December 31, 2021, combined net assets of the investment portfolios in which we waived fees in 2021 were $22.0 billion. We anticipate that the waivers in Q1 2022 will be at a slightly lower level than Q4 2021, and we expect to continue to waive fees through at least the first half of 2022.

The average annualized fee rate earned on our assets under management was 44.4 basis points in 2021, compared with 45.6 basis points earned in 2020. Our effective fee rate has declined largely due to the July 2021 fee reductions in our target date products, client transfers within the complex to lower fee vehicles or share classes over
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the last year, higher money market fee waivers, and lower performance-based fees. These were partially offset as higher market valuations led to an asset class shift towards equity strategies.

Operating expenses. Operating expenses were $3,961.9 million in 2021, an increase of 14.5% over the comparable 2020 period. On a non-GAAP basis, operating expenses were $3,840.3 million, a 14.9% increase over the comparable 2020 period.

The increase in both GAAP and non-GAAP operating expenses was primarily due to higher compensation expenses, including higher annual bonuses, salaries and benefits, and stock-based compensation expenses as a result of continued investment in hiring for our business as well as higher distribution and servicing costs due to higher average assets under management. The 2021 period also reflects costs incurred from an expanded relationship with FIS Capital Markets US LLC ("FIS"), which began providing technology development and core operations for our full-service recordkeeping offering in August 2021. These costs incurred from the FIS arrangement were partially offset by a reduction in compensation expenses as a result of the approximately 800 associates who transitioned to FIS in August 2021.

The firm currently estimates its 2022 non-GAAP operating expenses, including a full-year of OHA's operating expenses, will grow in the range of 12% to 16%. Without consideration of OHA's operating expenses, the firm's 2022 non-GAAP operating expenses are expected to grow in the range of 4% to 8%. The firm could elect to adjust its expense growth should unforeseen circumstances arise, including significant market movements.

Operating margin. Our operating margin in 2021 was 48.4%, compared with 44.2% in 2020. The increase in our operating margin in 2021 compared with 2020 is primarily driven by revenue growth outpacing the increase in operating expenses.

Diluted earnings per share. Diluted earnings per share was $13.12 in 2021 as compared to $9.98 in 2020. On a non-GAAP basis, diluted earnings per share was $12.75 in 2021 as compared to $9.58 for 2020. The increase in both GAAP and non-GAAP diluted earnings per share in 2021 compared to 2020 was primarily driven by higher operating income, lower weighted average outstanding shares, and a lower effective tax rate. These drivers of the increase were partially offset by lower net investment gains recognized in 2021 than in 2020. See our non-GAAP reconciliations later in this Management's Discussion and Analysis section.

Future Operating Results Impact of OHA acquisition

As part of the OHA acquisition, certain assets and liabilities resulting from the purchase price allocation, along with certain retention-related arrangements, will impact our operating results in future periods. These include the amortization of certain intangibles, fair value adjustments of contingent consideration, amortization of any fair market value basis differences, and compensation expense of retention-related arrangements. The table below highlights the maximum future impact of these items on our consolidated income statement and expected future recognition period. See Note 2 to our consolidated financial statements for more information about these acquisition-related items.

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ItemMaximum Future Impact to Operating Results
(in millions)
DescriptionRecognition Period
Contingent Consideration Liability - Earnout(1)
Up to $593.7Fair market value remeasured each quarter over the performance period with any change recognized in general, administrative, and other expenses; Portion considered to be compensatory will be recognized as compensation expense over the related service period.3 to 5 years
Definite-lived intangible assets(1)
$613.9 
Non-cash amortization of investment management agreement intangible assets.

For 2022, amount to be recognized is expected to be $109 million.
6.1 years
(weighted average)
Investments in affiliated private investment funds - fair value in excess of carrying value(1)
$306.5 
Non-cash amortization to be recognized as a reduction in net revenues.

For 2022, amount to be recognized is expected to be $53 million.
5.9 years
(weighted average)
Non-controlling interest - fair value in excess of carrying value(1)
$(129.1)
Non-cash amortization to be recognized as a reduction in compensation expense.

For 2022, amount to be recognized is expected to be $23 million.
5.9 years
(weighted average)
Purchase consideration deemed compensatory(1)
$283.2 
Non-cash amortization to be recognized as compensation expense.

For 2022, amount to be recognized is expected to be $57 million.
5 years
Value creation arrangementVariable - Fair market value at December 31, 2021 was $30 million. Fair market value remeasured each quarter and recognized over the performance period as compensation expense.5 years
(1) Related operating results impact is anticipated to be a non-GAAP adjustment beginning in 2022.

Results Overview - 2020 as compared to 2019

Investment advisory revenues. In 2020, investment advisory revenues increased 11.4% over the comparable 2019 period as average assets under our management increased $138.6 billion, or 12.5%, to $1,247.9 billion.

The average annualized fee rate earned on our assets under management was 45.6 basis points in 2020, compared with 46.1 basis points earned in 2019. Our effective fee rate declined largely due to client transfers within the complex to lower fee vehicles or share classes and the money market fee waivers. These declines were partially offset by performance-based fees earned in 2020.

Operating expenses. For 2020, operating expenses were $3,461.0 million as compared with $3,230.9 million in the 2019 period. The increase in operating expenses was primarily due to a $38.6 million increase in expense related to the supplemental savings plan from higher market returns, higher compensation expenses and our continued strategic investments.

In 2020, our non-GAAP operating expenses increased 6.1% to $3,342.7 million compared with 2019. See our non-GAAP reconciliations later in this Management's Discussion and Analysis section.

Operating margin. Our operating margin in 2020 was 44.2%, compared with 42.5% in 2019. The increase in our operating margin in 2020 compared to 2019 was primarily driven by the higher net revenues, partially offset by higher compensation-related expenses.

Diluted earnings per share. Diluted earnings per share was $9.98 in 2020 as compared with $8.70 in 2019. The 14.7% increase in diluted earnings per share in 2020 compared to 2019 as primarily driven by higher operating income, lower weighted average outstanding shares, and a lower effective tax rate. These drivers of the increase were partially offset by lower net investment gains recognized in 2020 than in 2019.
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On a non-GAAP basis, diluted earnings per share were $9.58 in 2020 as compared with $8.07 in 2019. The increase in non-GAAP diluted earnings per share was primarily due to higher operating income, lower weighted average outstanding shares, and a lower effective tax rate. The impact of these drivers were partially offset by lower net investment gains recognized in 2020 than in 2019. See our non-GAAP reconciliations later in this Management's Discussion and Analysis section.

Net revenues
2021 compared with 20202020 compared with 2019
(in millions)202120202019$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Investment advisory fees
U.S. mutual funds$4,388.9 $3,639.9 $3,452.5 $749.0 20.6 %$187.4 5.4 %
Subadvised funds, separate accounts, collective investment trusts, and other investment products2,709.2 2,053.2 1,660.0 656.0 32.0 %393.2 23.7 %
7,098.1 5,693.1 5,112.5 1,405.0 24.7 %580.6 11.4 %
Administrative, distribution, and servicing fees
Administrative fees453.5 402.3 385.4 51.2 12.7 %16.9 4.4 %
Distribution and servicing fees120.3 111.3 120.0 9.0 8.1 %(8.7)(7.3)%
573.8 513.6 505.4 60.2 11.7 %8.2 1.6 %
Net revenues$7,671.9 $6,206.7 $5,617.9 $1,465.2 23.6 %$588.8 10.5 %

Investment advisory fees. The relationship between the change in average assets under management and the change in investment advisory fee revenue for 2021, 2020 and 2019 are presented below.

2021 compared with 20202020 compared with 2019
Increase in average assets under managementIncrease in investment advisory feesIncrease in average assets under managementIncrease in investment advisory fees
U.S. mutual funds24.6 %20.6 %7.4 %5.4 %
Subadvised funds, separate accounts, collective investment trusts, and other investment products32.6 %32.0 %19.5 %23.7 %
Total investment advisory fees28.2 %24.7 %12.5 %11.4 %

In general, strong market returns in 2021 shifted the asset and share class mix among different fee rates and products including those with tiered-fee structures. Additionally, we have reduced the management fees of certain products over the last few years, including fee reductions in our target date products in July 2021.

In 2021, the relationship between U.S. mutual funds' average assets under management and investment advisory fee growth was impacted by the July 2021 fee reductions in our target date products and increased money market fees waivers.

For the subadvised funds, separate accounts, collective investment trusts, and other investment products, the July 2021 target date products fee reductions and lower performance fees reduced our effective fee rate, but was partially offset by a mix shift towards equities and inflows into our international products. These investment advisory revenues include fees earned for distribution-related services that we contract third-party intermediaries to provide. The costs we incur to pay the third-party intermediaries are recorded as part of distribution and servicing expenses.

In 2020, in general, strong market returns shifted the asset and share class mix among different fee rates and products including those with tiered-fee structures. Additionally, we have reduced the management fees of certain products over the last few years. The relationship between average assets under management and investment
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advisory fee growth was also impacted by the money market fees waivers and client transfers within the complex to lower fee vehicles or share classes.

Administrative, distribution, and servicing fees. Administrative, distribution, and servicing fees in 2021 were $573.8 million, an increase of $60.2 million from 2020. The higher fees were primarily due to increased transfer agent servicing activities provided to our U.S. mutual funds, higher model delivery revenue, as well as higher 12b-1 revenue earned on the Advisor and R share classes of the U.S. mutual funds as a result of increased assets under management in these share classes. The increase in 12b-1 revenue is offset entirely by costs paid to third-party intermediaries that source these assets and is reported in distribution and servicing expense.

For 2020, administrative, distribution, and servicing fees were $513.6 million, an increase of $8.2 million from 2019. The higher fees were primarily due to increased transfer agent servicing activities provided to our U.S. mutual funds. This increase was partially offset by lower 12b-1 revenue earned on the Advisor and R classes of the U.S. mutual funds as well as client transfers to lower fee vehicles and share classes have reduced assets under management in these share classes.

Net revenues are presented after the elimination of $5.5 million for 2021, $9.9 million for 2020, and $6.8 million for 2019, earned from our consolidated T. Rowe Price investment products. The corresponding expenses recognized by these consolidated products were also eliminated from operating expenses.

Operating expenses
2021 compared with 20202020 compared with 2019
(in millions)202120202019$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
Compensation and related costs, excluding supplemental savings plan$2,300.0 $2,070.6 $1,896.0 $229.4 11.1 %$174.6 9.2 %
Supplemental savings plan83.0 111.8 73.2 (28.8)(25.8)%38.6 52.7 %
Compensation and related costs$2,383.0 $2,182.4 $1,969.2 200.6 9.2 %213.2 10.8 %
Distribution and servicing costs373.9 278.5 262.5 95.4 34.3